Saliva proteins of vector Culicoides modify structure and infectivity of bluetongue virus particles.

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10033/135888
Title:
Saliva proteins of vector Culicoides modify structure and infectivity of bluetongue virus particles.
Authors:
Darpel, Karin E; Langner, Kathrin F A; Nimtz, Manfred; Anthony, Simon J; Brownlie, Joe; Takamatsu, Haru-Hisa; Mellor, Philip S; Mertens, Peter P C
Abstract:
Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are related orbiviruses, transmitted between their ruminant hosts primarily by certain haematophagous midge vectors (Culicoides spp.). The larger of the BTV outer-capsid proteins, 'VP2', can be cleaved by proteases (including trypsin or chymotrypsin), forming infectious subviral particles (ISVP) which have enhanced infectivity for adult Culicoides, or KC cells (a cell-line derived from C. sonorensis). We demonstrate that VP2 present on purified virus particles from 3 different BTV strains can also be cleaved by treatment with saliva from adult Culicoides. The saliva proteins from C. sonorensis (a competent BTV vector), cleaved BTV-VP2 more efficiently than those from C. nubeculosus (a less competent/non-vector species). Electrophoresis and mass spectrometry identified a trypsin-like protease in C. sonorensis saliva, which was significantly reduced or absent from C. nubeculosus saliva. Incubating purified BTV-1 with C. sonorensis saliva proteins also increased their infectivity for KC cells ∼10 fold, while infectivity for BHK cells was reduced by 2-6 fold. Treatment of an 'eastern' strain of EHDV-2 with saliva proteins of either C. sonorensis or C. nubeculosus cleaved VP2, but a 'western' strain of EHDV-2 remained unmodified. These results indicate that temperature, strain of virus and protein composition of Culicoides saliva (particularly its protease content which is dependent upon vector species), can all play a significant role in the efficiency of VP2 cleavage, influencing virus infectivity. Saliva of several other arthropod species has previously been shown to increase transmission, infectivity and virulence of certain arboviruses, by modulating and/or suppressing the mammalian immune response. The findings presented here, however, demonstrate a novel mechanism by which proteases in Culicoides saliva can also directly modify the orbivirus particle structure, leading to increased infectivity specifically for Culicoides cells and, in turn, efficiency of transmission to the insect vector.
Affiliation:
Pirbright Laboratory, Vector-borne Disease Programme, Institute for Animal Health, Woking, United Kingdom. karin.darpel@bbsrc.ac.uk
Citation:
Saliva proteins of vector Culicoides modify structure and infectivity of bluetongue virus particles. 2011, 6 (3):e17545 PLoS ONE
Journal:
PloS one
Issue Date:
2011
URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10033/135888
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0017545
PubMed ID:
21423801
Type:
Article
Language:
en
ISSN:
1932-6203
Appears in Collections:
Publications from Division of Molekulare Struktur Biologie (MOSB)

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorDarpel, Karin Een
dc.contributor.authorLangner, Kathrin F Aen
dc.contributor.authorNimtz, Manfreden
dc.contributor.authorAnthony, Simon Jen
dc.contributor.authorBrownlie, Joeen
dc.contributor.authorTakamatsu, Haru-Hisaen
dc.contributor.authorMellor, Philip Sen
dc.contributor.authorMertens, Peter P Cen
dc.date.accessioned2011-07-12T14:04:34Z-
dc.date.available2011-07-12T14:04:34Z-
dc.date.issued2011-
dc.identifier.citationSaliva proteins of vector Culicoides modify structure and infectivity of bluetongue virus particles. 2011, 6 (3):e17545 PLoS ONEen
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203-
dc.identifier.pmid21423801-
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0017545-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10033/135888-
dc.description.abstractBluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are related orbiviruses, transmitted between their ruminant hosts primarily by certain haematophagous midge vectors (Culicoides spp.). The larger of the BTV outer-capsid proteins, 'VP2', can be cleaved by proteases (including trypsin or chymotrypsin), forming infectious subviral particles (ISVP) which have enhanced infectivity for adult Culicoides, or KC cells (a cell-line derived from C. sonorensis). We demonstrate that VP2 present on purified virus particles from 3 different BTV strains can also be cleaved by treatment with saliva from adult Culicoides. The saliva proteins from C. sonorensis (a competent BTV vector), cleaved BTV-VP2 more efficiently than those from C. nubeculosus (a less competent/non-vector species). Electrophoresis and mass spectrometry identified a trypsin-like protease in C. sonorensis saliva, which was significantly reduced or absent from C. nubeculosus saliva. Incubating purified BTV-1 with C. sonorensis saliva proteins also increased their infectivity for KC cells ∼10 fold, while infectivity for BHK cells was reduced by 2-6 fold. Treatment of an 'eastern' strain of EHDV-2 with saliva proteins of either C. sonorensis or C. nubeculosus cleaved VP2, but a 'western' strain of EHDV-2 remained unmodified. These results indicate that temperature, strain of virus and protein composition of Culicoides saliva (particularly its protease content which is dependent upon vector species), can all play a significant role in the efficiency of VP2 cleavage, influencing virus infectivity. Saliva of several other arthropod species has previously been shown to increase transmission, infectivity and virulence of certain arboviruses, by modulating and/or suppressing the mammalian immune response. The findings presented here, however, demonstrate a novel mechanism by which proteases in Culicoides saliva can also directly modify the orbivirus particle structure, leading to increased infectivity specifically for Culicoides cells and, in turn, efficiency of transmission to the insect vector.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.subject.meshAnimalsen
dc.subject.meshBluetongueen
dc.subject.meshBluetongue virusen
dc.subject.meshCell Lineen
dc.subject.meshCeratopogonidaeen
dc.subject.meshChymotrypsinen
dc.subject.meshElectrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gelen
dc.subject.meshInsect Vectorsen
dc.subject.meshMolecular Weighten
dc.subject.meshProtease Inhibitorsen
dc.subject.meshSalivaen
dc.subject.meshSalivary Proteins and Peptidesen
dc.subject.meshSheepen
dc.subject.meshTemperatureen
dc.subject.meshTrypsinen
dc.subject.meshViral Proteinsen
dc.subject.meshVirionen
dc.titleSaliva proteins of vector Culicoides modify structure and infectivity of bluetongue virus particles.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentPirbright Laboratory, Vector-borne Disease Programme, Institute for Animal Health, Woking, United Kingdom. karin.darpel@bbsrc.ac.uken
dc.identifier.journalPloS oneen
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