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  • Regulatory T cells control endothelial chemokine production and migration of T cells into intestinal tumors of APC mice.

    Akeus, Paulina; Szeponik, Louis; Ahlmanner, Filip; Sundström, Patrik; Alsén, Samuel; Gustavsson, Bengt; Sparwasser, Tim; Raghavan, Sukanya; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle uns klinische Ifektionsforschung GmbH, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (2018-04-18)
    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are crucial for anti-tumor immunity. We have previously shown that regulatory T cells (Treg) are able to reduce T-cell transendothelial migration in vitro and accumulation of effector T cells in intestinal tumors in vivo. Treg depletion also resulted in increased levels of the chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 specifically in the tumors. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms for Treg mediated suppression of T-cell migration into intestinal tumors in the APC
  • Cytokines, Antibodies, and Histopathological Profiles during Giardia Infection and Variant-Specific Surface Protein-Based Vaccination.

    Serradell, Marianela C; Gargantini, Pablo R; Saura, Alicia; Oms, Sergio R; Rupil, Lucía L; Berod, Luciana; Sparwasser, Tim; Luján, Hugo D; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinischeInfektionsforschung GmbH, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (2018-06-01)
    Giardiasis is one of the most common human intestinal diseases worldwide. Several experimental animal models have been used to evaluate
  • Proceedings of the signature series event of the international society for cellular therapy: "Advancements in cellular therapies and regenerative medicine in digestive diseases," London, United Kingdom, May 3, 2017.

    Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Dos Santos, Claudia C; Baumgart, Daniel C; Cangemi, Giuseppina C; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Ciacci, Carolina; De Coppi, Paolo; Haldar, Debashis; Klersy, Catherine; Nostro, M Cristina; Ott, Michael; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Tomei, Alice A; Uygun, Basak; Vetrano, Stefania; Orlando, Giuseppe (2018-03)
    A summary of the First Signature Series Event, "Advancements in Cellular Therapies and Regenerative Medicine for Digestive Diseases," held on May 3, 2017, in London, United Kingdom, is presented. Twelve speakers from three continents covered major topics in the areas of cellular therapy and regenerative medicine applied to liver and gastrointestinal medicine as well as to diabetes mellitus. Highlights from their presentations, together with an overview of the global impact of digestive diseases and a proposal for a shared online collection and data-monitoring platform tool, are included in this proceedings. Although growing evidence demonstrate the feasibility and safety of exploiting cell-based technologies for the treatment of digestive diseases, regulatory and methodological obstacles will need to be overcome before the successful implementation in the clinic of these novel attractive therapeutic strategies.
  • Homologous recombination mediates stable Fah gene integration and phenotypic correction in tyrosinaemia mouse-model.

    Junge, Norman; Yuan, Qinggong; Vu, Thu Huong; Krooss, Simon; Bednarski, Christien; Balakrishnan, Asha; Cathomen, Toni; Manns, Michael P; Baumann, Ulrich; Sharma, Amar Deep; Ott, Michael; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinischeInfektionsforschung GmbH, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (2018-02-27)
    To stably correct tyrosinaemia in proliferating livers of fumarylacetoacetate-hydrolase knockout (Fah-/-)mice by homologous-recombination-mediated targeted addition of theFahgene.
  • In situ generation, metabolism and immunomodulatory signaling actions of nitro-conjugated linoleic acid in a murine model of inflammation.

    Villacorta, Luis; Minarrieta, Lucia; Salvatore, Sonia R; Khoo, Nicholas K; Rom, Oren; Gao, Zhen; Berman, Rebecca C; Jobbagy, Soma; Li, Lihua; Woodcock, Steven R; Chen, Y Eugene; Freeman, Bruce A; Ferreira, Ana M; Schopfer, Francisco J; Vitturi, Dario A; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinischeInfektionsforschung GmbH, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (2018-05)
    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a prime substrate for intra-gastric nitration giving rise to the formation of nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-CLA). Herein, NO2-CLA generation is demonstrated within the context of acute inflammatory responses both in vitro and in vivo. Macrophage activation resulted in dose- and time-dependent CLA nitration and also in the production of secondary electrophilic and non-electrophilic derivatives. Both exogenous NO2-CLA as well as that generated in situ, attenuated NF-κB-dependent gene expression, decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production and up-regulated Nrf2-regulated proteins. Importantly, both CLA nitration and the corresponding downstream anti-inflammatory actions of NO2-CLA were recapitulated in a mouse peritonitis model where NO2-CLA administration decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibited leukocyte recruitment. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the formation of NO2-CLA has the potential to function as an adaptive response capable of not only modulating inflammation amplitude but also protecting neighboring tissues via the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes.
  • Regulatory T Cells Suppress Inflammation and Blistering in Pemphigoid Diseases.

    Bieber, Katja; Sun, Shijie; Witte, Mareike; Kasprick, Anika; Beltsiou, Foteini; Behnen, Martina; Laskay, Tamás; Schulze, Franziska S; Pipi, Elena; Reichhelm, Niklas; Pagel, René; Zillikens, Detlef; Schmidt, Enno; Sparwasser, Tim; Kalies, Kathrin; Ludwig, Ralf J; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH, Feodor-Lynen-Str.7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (2017)
    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are well known for their modulatory functions in adaptive immunity. Through regulation of T cell functions, Tregs have also been demonstrated to indirectly curb myeloid cell-driven inflammation. However, direct effects of Tregs on myeloid cell functions are insufficiently characterized, especially in the context of myeloid cell-mediated diseases, such as pemphigoid diseases (PDs). PDs are caused by autoantibodies targeting structural proteins of the skin. Autoantibody binding triggers myeloid cell activation through specific activation of Fc gamma receptors, leading to skin inflammation and subepidermal blistering. Here, we used mouse models to address the potential contribution of Tregs to PD pathogenesis in vivo. Depletion of Tregs induced excessive inflammation and blistering both clinically and histologically in two different PD mouse models. Of note, in the skin of Treg-depleted mice with PD, we detected increased expression of different cytokines, including Th2-specific IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 as well as pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and the T cell chemoattractant CXCL-9. We next aimed to determine whether Tregs alter the migratory behavior of myeloid cells, dampen immune complex (IC)-induced myeloid cell activation, or both. In vitro experiments demonstrated that co-incubation of IC-activated myeloid cells with Tregs had no impact on the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) but downregulated β2 integrin expression. Hence, Tregs mitigate PD by altering the migratory capabilities of myeloid cells rather than their release of ROS. Modulating cytokine expression by administering an excess of IL-10 or blocking IFN-γ may be used in clinical translation of these findings.
  • Adenoviral vector-mediated GM-CSF gene transfer improves anti-mycobacterial immunity in mice - role of regulatory T cells.

    Singpiel, Alena; Kramer, Julia; Maus, Regina; Stolper, Jennifer; Bittersohl, Lara Friederike; Gauldie, Jack; Kolb, Martin; Welte, Tobias; Sparwasser, Tim; Maus, Ulrich A; TWINCORE; Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (2017-10-26)
    Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor involved in differentiation, survival and activation of myeloid and non-myeloid cells with important implications for lung antibacterial immunity. Here we examined the effect of pulmonary adenoviral vector-mediated delivery of GM-CSF (AdGM-CSF) on anti-mycobacterial immunity in M. bovis BCG infected mice. Exposure of M. bovis BCG infected mice to AdGM-CSF either applied on 6h, or 6h and 7days post-infection substantially increased alveolar recruitment of iNOS and IL-12 expressing macrophages, and significantly increased accumulation of IFNγpos T cells and particularly regulatory T cells (Tregs). This was accompanied by significantly reduced mycobacterial loads in the lungs of mice. Importantly, diphtheria toxin-induced depletion of Tregs did not influence mycobacterial loads, but accentuated immunopathology in AdGM-CSF-exposed mice infected with M. bovis BCG. Together, the data demonstrate that AdGM-CSF therapy improves lung protective immunity against M. bovis BCG infection in mice independent of co-recruited Tregs, which however critically contribute to limit lung immunopathology in BCG-infected mice. These data may be relevant to the development of immunomodulatory strategies to limit immunopathology-based lung injury in tuberculosis in humans.
  • Suppression of Th17-polarized airway inflammation by rapamycin.

    Joean, Oana; Hueber, Anja; Feller, Felix; Jirmo, Adan Chari; Lochner, Matthias; Dittrich, Anna-Maria; Albrecht, Melanie; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und kliische Infektionsforschung GmbH, Deodor-Lynen-Sr. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (2017-11-10)
    Because Th17-polarized airway inflammation correlates with poor control in bronchial asthma and is a feature of numerous other difficult-to-treat inflammatory lung diseases, new therapeutic approaches for this type of airway inflammation are necessary. We assessed different licensed anti-inflammatory agents with known or expected efficacy against Th17-polarization in mouse models of Th17-dependent airway inflammation. Upon intravenous transfer of in vitro derived Th17 cells and intranasal challenge with the corresponding antigen, we established acute and chronic murine models of Th17-polarised airway inflammation. Consecutively, we assessed the efficacy of methylprednisolone, roflumilast, azithromycin, AM80 and rapamycin against acute or chronic Th17-dependent airway inflammation. Quantifiers for Th17-associated inflammation comprised: bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) differential cell counts, allergen-specific cytokine and immunoglobulin secretion, as well as flow cytometric phenotyping of pulmonary inflammatory cells. Only rapamycin proved effective against acute Th17-dependent airway inflammation, accompanied by increased plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and reduced neutrophils as well as reduced CXCL-1 levels in BAL. Chronic Th17-dependent airway inflammation was unaltered by rapamycin treatment. None of the other agents showed efficacy in our models. Our results demonstrate that Th17-dependent airway inflammation is difficult to treat with known agents. However, we identify rapamycin as an agent with inhibitory potential against acute Th17-polarized airway inflammation.
  • About cytokeratin 19 and the drivers of liver regeneration.

    Junge, Norman; Sharma, Amar Deep; Ott, Michael; TwinCore, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH, Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (2017-10-12)
  • TLR3 is required for survival following Coxsackievirus B3 infection by driving T lymphocyte activation and polarization: The role of dendritic cells.

    Sesti-Costa, Renata; Françozo, Marcela Cristina Santiago; Silva, Grace Kelly; Proenca-Modena, José Luiz; Silva, João Santana; Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH, Feodor-Lynen-Str.7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (2017)
    Type B coxsackievirus (CVB) is a common cause of acute and chronic myocarditis, meningitis and pancreatitis, often leading to heart failure and pancreatic deficiency. The polarization of CD4+ T lymphocytes and their cytokine milieu are key factors in the outcome of CVB-induced diseases. Thus, sensing the virus and driving the adaptive immune response are essential for the establishment of a protective immune response. TLR3 is a crucial virus recognition receptor that confers the host with resistance to CVB infection. In the current study, we found that TLR3 expression in dendritic cells plays a role in their activation upon CVB3 infection in vitro, as TLR3-deficient dendritic cells up-regulate CD80 and CD86 to a less degree than WT cells. Instead, they up-regulated the inhibitory molecule PD-L1 and secreted considerably lower levels of TNF-α and IL-10 and a higher level of IL-23. T lymphocyte proliferation in co-culture with CVB3-infected dendritic cells was increased by TLR3-expressing DCs and other cells. Furthermore, in the absence of TLR3, the T lymphocyte response was shifted toward a Th17 profile, which was previously reported to be deleterious for the host. TLR3-deficient mice were very susceptible to CVB3 infection, with increased pancreatic injury and extensive inflammatory infiltrate in the heart that was associated with uncontrolled viral replication. Adoptive transfer of TLR3+ dendritic cells slightly improved the survival of TLR-deficient mice following CVB3 infection. Therefore, our findings highlight the importance of TLR3 signaling in DCs and in other cells to induce activation and polarization of the CD4+ T lymphocyte response toward a Th1 profile and consequently for a better outcome of CVB3 infection. These data provide new insight into the immune-mediated mechanisms by which CVBs are recognized and cleared in order to prevent the development of myocarditis and pancreatitis and may contribute to the design of therapies for enteroviral infections.
  • Schistosome-induced pulmonary B cells inhibit allergic airway inflammation and display a reduced Th2-driving function.

    van der Vlugt, L E P M; Obieglo, K; Ozir-Fazalalikhan, A; Sparwasser, T; Haeberlein, S; Smits, H H; TwinCore, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (2017-08)
    Chronic schistosome infections protect against allergic airway inflammation (AAI) via the induction of IL-10-producing splenic regulatory B (Breg) cells. Previous experiments have demonstrated that schistosome-induced pulmonary B cells can also reduce AAI, but act independently of IL-10. We have now further characterized the phenotype and inhibitory activity of these protective pulmonary B cells. We excluded a role for regulatory T (Treg) cell induction as putative AAI-protective mechanisms. Schistosome-induced B cells showed increased CD86 expression and reduced cytokine expression in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands compared with control B cells. To investigate the consequences for T cell activation we cultured ovalbumin (OVA)-pulsed, schistosome-induced B cells with OVA-specific transgenic T cells and observed less Th2 cytokine expression and T cell proliferation compared with control conditions. This suppressive effect was preserved even under optimal T cell stimulation by anti-CD3/28. Blocking of the inhibitory cytokines IL-10 or TGF-β only marginally restored Th2 cytokine induction. These data suggest that schistosome-induced pulmonary B cells are impaired in their capacity to produce cytokines to TLR ligands and to induce Th2 cytokine responses independent of their antigen-presenting function. These findings underline the presence of distinct B cell subsets with different stimulatory or inhibitory properties even if induced by the same type of helminth.
  • Tregs restrain dendritic cell autophagy to ameliorate autoimmunity.

    Alissafi, Themis; Banos, Aggelos; Boon, Louis; Sparwasser, Tim; Ghigo, Alessandra; Wing, Kajsa; Vassilopoulos, Dimitrios; Boumpas, Dimitrios; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Cadwell, Ken; Verginis, Panayotis; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH, Feodor-Lynnen Str. 7,30625 Hannover, Germany. (2017-06-30)
    Design of efficacious Treg-based therapies and establishment of clinical tolerance in autoimmune diseases have proven to be challenging. The clinical implementation of Treg immunotherapy has been hampered by various impediments related to the stability and isolation procedures of Tregs as well as the specific in vivo targets of Treg modalities. Herein, we have demonstrated that Foxp3+ Tregs potently suppress autoimmune responses in vivo through inhibition of the autophagic machinery in DCs in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4-dependent (CTLA4-dependent) manner. Autophagy-deficient DCs exhibited reduced immunogenic potential and failed to prime autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells to mediate autoimmunity. Mechanistically, CTLA4 binding promoted activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in DCs, leading to decreased transcription of the autophagy component microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3β (Lc3b). Human DCs treated with CTLA4-Ig, a fusion protein composed of the Fc region of IgG1 and the extracellular domain of CTLA4 (also known as abatacept, marketed as Orencia), demonstrated reduced levels of autophagosome formation, while DCs from CTLA4-Ig-treated rheumatoid arthritis patients displayed diminished LC3B transcripts. Collectively, our data identify the canonical autophagy pathway in DCs as a molecular target of Foxp3+ Treg-mediated suppression that leads to amelioration of autoimmune responses. These findings may pave the way for the development of therapeutic protocols that exploit Tregs for the treatment of autoimmunity as well as diseases in which disturbed tolerance is a common denominator.
  • The human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein pUL11 acts via CD45 to induce T cell IL-10 secretion.

    Zischke, Jasmin; Mamareli, Panagiota; Pokoyski, Claudia; Gabaev, Ildar; Buyny, Sabine; Jacobs, Roland; Falk, Christine S; Lochner, Matthias; Sparwasser, Tim; Schulz, Thomas F; Kay-Fedorov, Penelope C; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infectionsforschung GmbH, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (2017-06)
    Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread pathogen, infection with which can cause severe disease for immunocompromised individuals. The complex changes wrought on the host's immune system during both productive and latent HCMV infection are well known. Infected cells are masked and manipulated and uninfected immune cells are also affected; peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation is reduced and cytokine profiles altered. Levels increase of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, which may be important for the establishment of HCMV infections and is required for the development of high viral titres by murine cytomegalovirus. The mechanisms by which HCMV affects T cell IL-10 secretion are not understood. We show here that treatment of PBMC with purified pUL11 induces IL-10 producing T cells as a result of pUL11 binding to the CD45 phosphatase on T cells. IL-10 production induced by HCMV infection is also in part mediated by pUL11. Supernatants from pUL11 treated cells have anti-inflammatory effects on untreated PBMC. Considering the mechanism, CD45 can be a positive or negative regulator of TCR signalling, depending on its expression level, and we show that pUL11 also has concentration dependent activating or inhibitory effects on T cell proliferation and on the kinase function of the CD45 substrate Lck. pUL11 is therefore the first example of a viral protein that can target CD45 to induce T cells with anti-inflammatory properties. It is also the first HCMV protein shown to induce T cell IL-10 secretion. Understanding the mechanisms by which pUL11-induced changes in signal strength influence T cell development and function may provide the basis for the development of novel antiviral treatments and therapies against immune pathologies.
  • IL-33/ST2 pathway drives regulatory T cell dependent suppression of liver damage upon cytomegalovirus infection.

    Popovic, Branka; Golemac, Mijo; Podlech, Jürgen; Zeleznjak, Jelena; Bilic-Zulle, Lidija; Lukic, Miodrag L; Cicin-Sain, Luka; Reddehase, Matthias J; Sparwasser, Tim; Krmpotic, Astrid; Jonjic, Stipan; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH, Feodor-Lynen Str.7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (2017-04)
    Regulatory T (Treg) cells dampen an exaggerated immune response to viral infections in order to avoid immunopathology. Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are herpesviruses usually causing asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent hosts and induce strong cellular immunity which provides protection against CMV disease. It remains unclear how these persistent viruses manage to avoid induction of immunopathology not only during the acute infection but also during life-long persistence and virus reactivation. This may be due to numerous viral immunoevasion strategies used to specifically modulate immune responses but also induction of Treg cells by CMV infection. Here we demonstrate that liver Treg cells are strongly induced in mice infected with murine CMV (MCMV). The depletion of Treg cells results in severe hepatitis and liver damage without alterations in the virus load. Moreover, liver Treg cells show a high expression of ST2, a cellular receptor for tissue alarmin IL-33, which is strongly upregulated in the liver of infected mice. We demonstrated that IL-33 signaling is crucial for Treg cell accumulation after MCMV infection and ST2-deficient mice show a more pronounced liver pathology and higher mortality compared to infected control mice. These results illustrate the importance of IL-33 in the suppressive function of liver Treg cells during CMV infection.
  • MyD88 signaling in dendritic cells and the intestinal epithelium controls immunity against intestinal infection with C. rodentium.

    Friedrich, Christin; Mamareli, Panagiota; Thiemann, Sophie; Kruse, Friederike; Wang, Zuobai; Holzmann, Bernhard; Strowig, Till; Sparwasser, Tim; Lochner, Matthias; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH, Feodor-Lynen Str.7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (2017-05)
    MyD88-mediated signaling downstream of Toll-like receptors and the IL-1 receptor family is critically involved in the induction of protective host responses upon infections. Although it is known that MyD88-deficient mice are highly susceptible to a wide range of bacterial infections, the cell type-specific contribution of MyD88 in protecting the host against intestinal bacterial infection is only poorly understood. In order to investigate the importance of MyD88 in specific immune and nonimmune cell types during intestinal infection, we employed a novel murine knock-in model for MyD88 that enables the cell type-specific reactivation of functional MyD88 expression in otherwise MyD88-deficient mice. We report here that functional MyD88 signaling in CD11c+ cells was sufficient to activate intestinal dendritic cells (DC) and to induce the early group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3) response as well as the development of colonic Th17/Th1 cells in response to infection with the intestinal pathogen C. rodentium. In contrast, restricting MyD88 signaling to several other cell types, including macrophages (MO), T cells or ILC3 did not induce efficient intestinal immune responses upon infection. However, we observed that the functional expression of MyD88 in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) also partially protected the mice during intestinal infection, which was associated with enhanced epithelial barrier integrity and increased expression of the antimicrobial peptide RegIIIγ and the acute phase protein SAA1 by epithelial cells. Together, our data suggest that MyD88 signaling in DC and IEC is both essential and sufficient to induce a full spectrum of host responses upon intestinal infection with C. rodentium.
  • Melanocortin-1 receptor activation is neuroprotective in mouse models of neuroinflammatory disease.

    Mykicki, Nadine; Herrmann, Alexander M; Schwab, Nicholas; Deenen, René; Sparwasser, Tim; Limmer, Andreas; Wachsmuth, Lydia; Klotz, Luisa; Köhrer, Karl; Faber, Cornelius; Wiendl, Heinz; Luger, Thomas A; Meuth, Sven G; Loser, Karin; TWINCORE; Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infectionsforsching GmbH, Feodor-Lynen Str. 17, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (2016-10-26)
    In inflammation-associated progressive neuroinflammatory disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), inflammatory infiltrates containing T helper 1 (TH1) and TH17 cells cause demyelination and neuronal degeneration. Regulatory T cells (Treg) control the activation and infiltration of autoreactive T cells into the central nervous system (CNS). In MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice, Treg function is impaired. We show that a recently approved drug, Nle(4)-d-Phe(7)-α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (NDP-MSH), induced functional Treg, resulting in amelioration of EAE progression in mice. NDP-MSH also prevented immune cell infiltration into the CNS by restoring the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. NDP-MSH exerted long-lasting neuroprotective effects in mice with EAE and prevented excitotoxic death and reestablished action potential firing in mouse and human neurons in vitro. Neuroprotection by NDP-MSH was mediated via signaling through the melanocortin-1 and orphan nuclear 4 receptors in mouse and human neurons. NDP-MSH may be of benefit in treating neuroinflammatory diseases such as relapsing-remitting MS and related disorders.
  • Development and Function of Secondary and Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in the Small Intestine and the Colon.

    Buettner, Manuela; Lochner, Matthias; Twincore, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH, Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (2016)
    The immune system of the gut has evolved a number of specific lymphoid structures that contribute to homeostasis in the face of microbial colonization and food-derived antigenic challenge. These lymphoid organs encompass Peyer's patches (PP) in the small intestine and their colonic counterparts that develop in a programed fashion before birth. In addition, the gut harbors a network of lymphoid tissues that is commonly designated as solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT). In contrast to PP, SILT develop strictly after birth and consist of a dynamic continuum of structures ranging from small cryptopatches (CP) to large, mature isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF). Although the development of PP and SILT follow similar principles, such as an early clustering of lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the requirement for lymphotoxin beta (LTβ) receptor-mediated signaling, the formation of CP and their further maturation into ILF is associated with additional intrinsic and environmental signals. Moreover, recent data also indicate that specific differences exist in the regulation of ILF formation between the small intestine and the colon. Importantly, intestinal inflammation in both mice and humans is associated with a strong expansion of the lymphoid network in the gut. Recent experiments in mice suggest that these structures, although they resemble large, mature ILF in appearance, may represent de novo-induced tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO). While, so far, it is not clear whether intestinal TLO contribute to the exacerbation of inflammatory pathology, it has been shown that ILF provide the critical microenvironment necessary for the induction of an effective host response upon infection with enteric bacterial pathogens. Regarding the importance of ILF for intestinal immunity, interfering with the development and maturation of these lymphoid tissues may offer novel means for manipulating the immune response during intestinal infection or inflammation.
  • Metabolites: deciphering the molecular language between DCs and their environment.

    Minarrieta, Lucía; Ghorbani, Peyman; Sparwasser, Tim; Berod, Luciana; Twincore Centre of Experimental and Clinical Infection Research; a joint venture between the Hannover Medical School and the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Hannover 30625, Germany. (2017-02)
    Dendritic cells (DCs) determine the outcome of the immune response based on signals they receive from the environment. Presentation of antigen under various contexts can lead to activation and differentiation of T cells for immunity or dampening of immune responses by establishing tolerance, primarily through the priming of regulatory T cells. Infections, inflammation and normal cellular interactions shape DC responses through direct contact or via cytokine signaling. Although it is widely accepted that DCs sense microbial components through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), increasing evidence advocates for the existence of a set of signals that can profoundly shape DC function via PRR-independent pathways. This diverse group of host- or commensal-derived metabolites represents a newly appreciated code from which DCs can interpret environmental cues. In this review, we discuss the existing information on the effect of some of the most studied metabolites on DC function, together with the implications this may have in immune-mediated diseases.
  • Metabolic pathways in T cell activation and lineage differentiation.

    Almeida, Luís; Lochner, Matthias; Berod, Luciana; Sparwasser, Tim; TwinCore, Centre for experimental and clinical infection research GmbH, Ferodor-Lynen-Str.7,30625 Hannover, Germany. (2016-10)
    Recent advances in the field of immunometabolism support the concept that fundamental processes in T cell biology, such as TCR-mediated activation and T helper lineage differentiation, are closely linked to changes in the cellular metabolic programs. Although the major task of the intermediate metabolism is to provide the cell with a constant supply of energy and molecular precursors for the production of biomolecules, the dynamic regulation of metabolic pathways also plays an active role in shaping T cell responses. Key metabolic processes such as glycolysis, fatty acid and mitochondrial metabolism are now recognized as crucial players in T cell activation and differentiation, and their modulation can differentially affect the development of T helper cell lineages. In this review, we describe the diverse metabolic processes that T cells engage during their life cycle from naïve towards effector and memory T cells. We consider in particular how the cellular metabolism may actively support the function of T cells in their different states. Moreover, we discuss how molecular regulators such as mTOR or AMPK link environmental changes to adaptations in the cellular metabolism and elucidate the consequences on T cell differentiation and function.
  • Conventional Dendritic Cells Confer Protection against Mouse Cytomegalovirus Infection via TLR9 and MyD88 Signaling.

    Puttur, Franz; Francozo, Marcela; Solmaz, Gülhas; Bueno, Carlos; Lindenberg, Marc; Gohmert, Melanie; Swallow, Maxine; Tufa, Dejene; Jacobs, Roland; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Kühl, Anja A; Borkner, Lisa; Cicin-Sain, Luka; Holzmann, Bernard; Wagner, Hermann; Berod, Luciana; Sparwasser, Tim; Twincore Centre of Experimental and Clinical Infection Research; a joint venture between the Hannover Medical School and the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Hannover 30625, Germany. (2016-10-18)
    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an opportunistic virus severely infecting immunocompromised individuals. In mice, endosomal Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and downstream myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) are central to activating innate immune responses against mouse CMV (MCMV). In this respect, the cell-specific contribution of these pathways in initiating anti-MCMV immunity remains unclear. Using transgenic mice, we demonstrate that TLR9/MyD88 signaling selectively in CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) strongly enhances MCMV clearance by boosting natural killer (NK) cell CD69 expression and IFN-γ production. In addition, we show that in the absence of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), conventional DCs (cDCs) promote robust NK cell effector function and MCMV clearance in a TLR9/MyD88-dependent manner. Simultaneously, cDC-derived IL-15 regulates NK cell degranulation by TLR9/MyD88-independent mechanisms. Overall, we compartmentalize the cellular contribution of TLR9 and MyD88 signaling in individual DC subsets and evaluate the mechanism by which cDCs control MCMV immunity.

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