• Interaction of metal oxide nanoparticles with lung surfactant protein A.

      Schulze, Christine; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Ruge, Christian A; Wohlleben, Wendel; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Department of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany. chr.schulze@mx.uni-saarland.de (2011-04)
      The alveolar lining fluid (ALF) covering the respiratory epithelium of the deep lung is the first biological barrier encountered by nanoparticles after inhalation. We here report for the first time significant differences for metal oxide nanoparticles to the binding of surfactant protein A (SP-A), the predominant protein component of ALF. SP-A is a physiologically most relevant protein and provides important biological signals. Also, it is involved in the lung's immune defence, controlling e.g. particle binding, uptake or transcytosis by epithelial cells and macrophages. In our study, we could prove different particle-protein interaction for eight different nanoparticles, whereas particles of the same bulk material revealed different adsorption patterns. In contrast to other proteins as bovine serum albumin (BSA), SP-A does not seem to significantly deagglomerate large agglomerates of particles, indicating different adsorption mechanisms as in the well-investigated model protein BSA. These findings may have important consequences for biological fate and toxicological effects of inhaled nanomaterials.
    • Non-animal models of epithelial barriers (skin, intestine and lung) in research, industrial applications and regulatory toxicology.

      Gordon, Sarah; Daneshian, Mardas; Bouwstra, Joke; Caloni, Francesca; Constant, Samuel; Davies, Donna E; Dandekar, Gudrun; Guzman, Carlos A; Fabian, Eric; Haltner, Eleonore; et al. (2015)
      Models of the outer epithelia of the human body - namely the skin, the intestine and the lung - have found valid applications in both research and industrial settings as attractive alternatives to animal testing. A variety of approaches to model these barriers are currently employed in such fields, ranging from the utilization of ex vivo tissue to reconstructed in vitro models, and further to chip-based technologies, synthetic membrane systems and, of increasing current interest, in silico modeling approaches. An international group of experts in the field of epithelial barriers was convened from academia, industry and regulatory bodies to present both the current state of the art of non-animal models of the skin, intestinal and pulmonary barriers in their various fields of application, and to discuss research-based, industry-driven and regulatory-relevant future directions for both the development of new models and the refinement of existing test methods. Issues of model relevance and preference, validation and standardization, acceptance, and the need for simplicity versus complexity were focal themes of the discussions. The outcomes of workshop presentations and discussions, in relation to both current status and future directions in the utilization and development of epithelial barrier models, are presented by the attending experts in the current report.
    • Optical tweezers reveal relationship between microstructure and nanoparticle penetration of pulmonary mucus.

      Kirch, Julian; Schneider, Andreas; Abou, Bérengère; Hopf, Alexander; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Schneider, Marc; Schall, Christian; Wagner, Christian; Lehr, Claus-Michael (2012-11-06)
      In this study, the mobility of nanoparticles in mucus and similar hydrogels as model systems was assessed to elucidate the link between microscopic diffusion behavior and macroscopic penetration of such gels. Differences in particle adhesion to mucus components were strongly dependent on particle coating. Particles coated with 2 kDa PEG exhibited a decreased adhesion to mucus components, whereas chitosan strongly increased the adhesion. Despite such mucoinert properties of PEG, magnetic nanoparticles of both coatings did not penetrate through native respiratory mucus, resisting high magnetic forces (even for several hours). However, model hydrogels were, indeed, penetrated by both particles in dependency of particle coating, obeying the theory of particle mobility in an external force field. Comparison of penetration data with cryogenic scanning EM images of mucus and the applied model systems suggested particularly high rigidity of the mucin scaffold and a broad pore size distribution in mucus as reasons for the observed particle immobilization. Active probing of the rigidity of mucus and model gels with optical tweezers was used in this context to confirm such properties of mucus on the microscale, thus presenting the missing link between micro- and macroscopical observations. Because of high heterogeneity in the size of the voids and pores in mucus, on small scales, particle mobility will depend on adhesive or inert properties. However, particle translocation over distances larger than a few micrometers is restricted by highly rigid structures within the mucus mesh.