• Aspherical and Spherical InvA497-Functionalized Nanocarriers for Intracellular Delivery of Anti-Infective Agents.

      Castoldi, Arianna; Empting, Martin; De Rossi, Chiara; Mayr, Karsten; Dersch, Petra; Hartmann, Rolf; Müller, Rolf; Gordon, Sarah; Lehr, Claus-Michael; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Springer, 2018-12-05)
      The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of polymeric spherical and aspherical invasive nanocarriers, loaded with antibiotic, to access and treat intracellular bacterial infections. Aspherical nanocarriers were prepared by stretching of spherical precursors, and both aspherical and spherical nanocarriers were surface-functionalized with the invasive protein InvA497. The relative uptake of nanocarriers into HEp-2 epithelial cells was then assessed. Nanocarriers were subsequently loaded with a preparation of the non-permeable antibiotic gentamicin, and tested for their ability to treat HEp-2 cells infected with the enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri. InvA497-functionalized nanocarriers of both spherical and aspherical shape showed a significantly improved rate and extent of uptake into HEp-2 cells in comparison to non-functionalized nanocarriers. Functionalized and antibiotic-loaded nanocarriers demonstrated a dose dependent killing of intracellular S. flexneri. A slight but significant enhancement of intracellular bacterial killing was also observed with aspherical as compared to spherical functionalized nanocarriers at the highest tested concentration. InvA497-functionalized, polymer-based nanocarriers were able to efficiently deliver a non-permeable antibiotic across host cell membranes to affect killing of intracellular bacteria. Functionalized nanocarriers with an aspherical shape showed an interesting future potential for intracellular infection therapy.
    • Bioinspired Liposomes for Oral Delivery of Colistin to Combat Intracellular Infections by Salmonella enterica.

      Menina, Sara; Eisenbeis, Janina; Kamal, Mohamed Ashraf M; Koch, Marcus; Bischoff, Markus; Gordon, Sarah; Loretz, Brigitta; Lehr, Claus-Michael; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Wiley-VCH, 2019-07-22)
      Bacterial invasion into eukaryotic cells and the establishment of intracellular infection has proven to be an effective means of resisting antibiotic action, as anti-infective agents commonly exhibit a poor permeability across the host cell membrane. Encapsulation of anti-infectives into nanoscaled delivery systems, such as liposomes, is shown to result in an enhancement of intracellular delivery. The aim of the current work is, therefore, to formulate colistin, a poorly permeable anti-infective, into liposomes suitable for oral delivery, and to functionalize these carriers with a bacteria-derived invasive moiety to enhance their intracellular delivery. Different combinations of phospholipids and cholesterol are explored to optimize liposomal drug encapsulation and stability in biorelevant media. These liposomes are then surface-functionalized with extracellular adherence protein (Eap), derived from Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment of HEp-2 and Caco-2 cells infected with Salmonella enterica using colistin-containing, Eap-functionalized liposomes resulted in a significant reduction of intracellular bacteria, in comparison to treatment with nonfunctionalized liposomes as well as colistin alone. This indicates that such bio-invasive carriers are able to facilitate intracellular delivery of colistin, as necessary for intracellular anti-infective activity. The developed Eap-functionalized liposomes, therefore, present a promising strategy for improving the therapy of intracellular infections.