• The mycobacterial thioredoxin peroxidase can act as a one-cysteine peroxiredoxin.

      Trujillo, Madia; Mauri, PierLuigi; Benazzi, Louise; Comini, Marcelo; De Palma, Antonella; Flohé, Leopold; Radi, Rafael; Stehr, Matthias; Singh, Mahavir; Ursini, Fulvio; et al. (2006-07-21)
      Thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx) has been reported to dominate the defense against H(2)O(2), other hydroperoxides, and peroxynitrite at the expense of thioredoxin (Trx) B and C in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt). By homology, the enzyme has been classified as an atypical 2-C-peroxiredoxin (Prx), with Cys(60) as the "peroxidatic" cysteine (C(P)) forming a complex catalytic center with Cys(93) as the "resolving" cysteine (C(R)). Site-directed mutagenesis confirms Cys(60) to be C(P) and Cys(80) to be catalytically irrelevant. Replacing Cys(93) with serine leads to fast inactivation as seen by conventional activity determination, which is associated with oxidation of Cys(60) to a sulfinic acid derivative. However, in comparative stopped-flow analysis, WT-MtTPx and MtTPx C93S reduce peroxynitrite and react with TrxB and -C similarly fast. Reduction of pre-oxidized WT-MtTPx and MtTPx C93S by MtTrxB is demonstrated by monitoring the redox-dependent tryptophan fluorescence of MtTrxB. Furthermore, MtTPx C93S remains stable for 10 min at a morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride-generated low flux of peroxynitrite and excess MtTrxB in a dihydrorhodamine oxidation model. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed disulfide bridges between Cys(60) and Cys(93) and between Cys(60) and Cys(80) in oxidized WT-MtTPx. Reaction of pre-oxidized WT-MtTPx and MtTPx C93S with MtTrxB C34S or MtTrxC C40S yielded dead-end intermediates in which the Trx mutants are preferentially linked via disulfide bonds to Cys(60) and never to Cys(93) of the TPx. It is concluded that neither Cys(80) nor Cys(93) is required for the catalytic cycle of the peroxidase. Instead, MtTPx can react as a 1-C-Prx with Cys(60) being the site of attack for both the oxidizing and the reducing substrate. The role of Cys(93) is likely to conserve the oxidation equivalents of the sulfenic acid state of C(P) as a disulfide bond to prevent overoxidation of Cys(60) under a restricted supply of reducing substrate.
    • Structural insights into catalysis and inhibition of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Crystal structures of the enzyme alpha-aminoacrylate intermediate and an enzyme-inhibitor complex.

      Schnell, Robert; Oehlmann, Wulf; Singh, Mahavir; Schneider, Gunter; Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. (2007-08-10)
      Cysteine biosynthetic genes are up-regulated in the persistent phase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the corresponding enzymes are therefore of interest as potential targets for novel antibacterial agents. cysK1 is one of these genes and has been annotated as coding for an O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase. Recombinant CysK1 is a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of O-acetylserine to cysteine. The crystal structure of the enzyme was determined to 1.8A resolution. CysK1 belongs to the family of fold type II PLP enzymes and is similar in structure to other O-acetylserine sulfhydrylases. We were able to trap the alpha-aminoacrylate reaction intermediate and determine its structure by cryocrystallography. Formation of the aminoacrylate complex is accompanied by a domain rotation resulting in active site closure. The aminoacrylate moiety is bound in the active site via the covalent linkage to the PLP cofactor and by hydrogen bonds of its carboxyl group to several enzyme residues. The catalytic lysine residue is positioned such that it can protonate the Calpha-carbon atom of the aminoacrylate only from the si-face, resulting in the formation of L-cysteine. CysK1 is competitively inhibited by a four-residue peptide derived from the C-terminal of serine acetyl transferase. The crystallographic analysis reveals that the peptide binds to the enzyme active site, suggesting that CysK1 forms an bi-enzyme complex with serine acetyl transferase, in a similar manner to other bacterial and plant O-acetylserine sulfhydrylases. The structure of the enzyme-peptide complex provides a framework for the design of strong binding inhibitors.