• Identification and characterization of new broad host-range rV5-like coliphages C203 and P206 directed against enterobacteria.

      Sváb, Domonkos; Falgenhauer, Linda; Rohde, Manfred; Chakraborty, Trinad; Tóth, István; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Elsevier, 2018-10-01)
      We isolated and characterized two novel rV5-like lytic bacteriophages from independently collected food samples. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that these phages have linear double-stranded DNA genomes comprising 138,073 bp with 213 CDS and 5 tRNA genes. The two genomes contain completely identical nucleotide sequence, albeit there is a 10,718 bp-long shift in the sequence. The GC content of the phage genomes was 43.7% and they showed high general homology to rV5-like phages. The new phages were termed C203 and P206. The genome of both phages contains a unique ORF that encodes for a putative phage homing endonuclease. The phage produced clear plaques with a burst size of approx. 1000 viral particles and a latent period of 60 min. Morphological investigation indicated that the new phages are members of the family Myoviridae with an approximate head length of 85 nm, tail length of 75 nm, and a head width of 96 nm. C203 and P206 exhibit a broad and uniform host range, which included enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains of serogroup O157, multi drug resistant (MDR) E. coli strains of various sero- and pathotypes, and both Shigella sonnei and S. dysenteriae strains. C203 and P206 both effectively reduced the number of living EHEC O157:H7 Sakai in experimentally inoculated minced meat. The same broad host range, the lack of any virulence related genes, the stability and its short latent period suggest that these newly found phages could be suitable candidates as a bio-control agents against food-borne pathogenic Enterobacteria.
    • Type IV Secretion System and Its Adhesin Subunit, CagL, Mediate Potent Inflammatory Responses in Primary Human Endothelial Cells.

      Tafreshi, Mona; Guan, Jyeswei; Gorrell, Rebecca J; Chew, Nicole; Xin, Yue; Deswaerte, Virginie; Rohde, Manfred; Daly, Roger J; Peek, Richard M; Jenkins, Brendan J; Davies, Elizabeth M; Kwok, Terry; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Frontiers, 2018-01-01)
      The Gram-negative bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer in humans. Although the gastric epithelium is the primary site of H. pylori colonization, H. pylori can gain access to deeper tissues. Concurring with this notion, H. pylori has been found in the vicinity of endothelial cells in gastric submucosa. Endothelial cells play crucial roles in innate immune response, wound healing and tumorigenesis. This study examines the molecular mechanisms by which H. pylori interacts with and triggers inflammatory responses in endothelial cells. We observed that H. pylori infection of primary human endothelial cells stimulated secretion of the key inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). In particular, IL-8, a potent chemokine and angiogenic factor, was secreted by H. pylori-infected endothelial cells to levels ~10- to 20-fold higher than that typically observed in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. These inflammatory responses were triggered by the H. pylori type IV secretion system (T4SS) and the T4SS-associated adhesin CagL, but not the translocation substrate CagA. Moreover, in contrast to integrin α5β1 playing an essential role in IL-8 induction by H. pylori upon infection of gastric epithelial cells, both integrin α5β1 and integrin αvβ3 were dispensable for IL-8 induction in H. pylori-infected endothelial cells. However, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is crucial for mediating the potent H. pylori-induced IL-8 response in endothelial cells. This study reveals a novel mechanism by which the H. pylori T4SS and its adhesin subunit, CagL, may contribute to H. pylori pathogenesis by stimulating the endothelial innate immune responses, while highlighting EGFR as a potential therapeutic target for controlling H. pylori-induced inflammation. Introduction
    • Microbiome yarns: The Global Phenotype-Genotype Survey: Episode I: all my worldly goods, including my microbiome, I thee endow.

      Timmis, Kenneth; Jebok, Franziska; Rohde, Manfred; Molinari, Gabriella; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Wiley and Sons, 2019-01-01)
    • Macrophage entrapped silica coated superparamagnetic iron oxide particles for controlled drug release in a 3D cancer model.

      Ullah, Sami; Seidel, Katja; Türkkan, Sibel; Warwas, Dawid Peter; Dubich, Tatyana; Rohde, Manfred; Hauser, Hansjörg; Behrens, Peter; Kirschning, Andreas; Köster, Mario; Wirth, Dagmar; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-12-23)
      Targeted delivery of drugs is a major challenge in treatment of diverse diseases. Systemically administered drugs demand high doses and are accompanied by poor selectivity and side effects on non-target cells. Here, we introduce a new principle for targeted drug delivery. It is based on macrophages as transporters for nanoparticle-coupled drugs as well as controlled release of drugs by hyperthermia mediated disruption of the cargo cells and simultaneous deliberation of nanoparticle-linked drugs. Hyperthermia is induced by an alternating electromagnetic field (AMF) that induces heat from silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). We show proof-of-principle of controlled release by the simultaneous disruption of the cargo cells and the controlled, AMF induced release of a toxin, which was covalently linked to silica-coated SPIONs via a thermo-sensitive linker. Cells that had not been loaded with SPIONs remain unaffected. Moreover, in a 3D co-culture model we demonstrate specific killing of associated tumour cells when employing a ratio as low as 1:40 (SPION-loaded macrophage: tumour cells). Overall, our results demonstrate that AMF induced drug release from macrophage-entrapped nanoparticles is tightly controlled and may be an attractive novel strategy for targeted drug release.
    • On the relation between filament density, force generation, and protrusion rate in mesenchymal cell motility.

      Dolati, Setareh; Kage, Frieda; Mueller, Jan; Müsken, Mathias; Kirchner, Marieluise; Dittmar, Gunnar; Sixt, Michael; Rottner, Klemens; Falcke, Martin; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Amrican Society for Cell biology, 2018-11-01)
      Lamellipodia are flat membrane protrusions formed during mesenchymal motion. Polymerization at the leading edge assembles the actin filament network and generates protrusion force. How this force is supported by the network and how the assembly rate is shared between protrusion and network retrograde flow determines the protrusion rate. We use mathematical modeling to understand experiments changing the F-actin density in lamellipodia of B16-F1 melanoma cells by modulation of Arp2/3 complex activity or knockout of the formins FMNL2 and FMNL3. Cells respond to a reduction of density with a decrease of protrusion velocity, an increase in the ratio of force to filament number, but constant network assembly rate. The relation between protrusion force and tension gradient in the F-actin network and the density dependency of friction, elasticity, and viscosity of the network explain the experimental observations. The formins act as filament nucleators and elongators with differential rates. Modulation of their activity suggests an effect on network assembly rate. Contrary to these expectations, the effect of changes in elongator composition is much weaker than the consequences of the density change. We conclude that the force acting on the leading edge membrane is the force required to drive F-actin network retrograde flow.
    • The olfactory epithelium as a port of entry in neonatal neurolisteriosis.

      Pägelow, Dennis; Chhatbar, Chintan; Beineke, Andreas; Liu, Xiaokun; Nerlich, Andreas; van Vorst, Kira; Rohde, Manfred; Kalinke, Ulrich; Förster, Reinhold; Halle, Stephan; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Hornef, Mathias W; Fulde, Marcus; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (2018-10-15)
      Bacterial infections of the central nervous system (CNS) remain a major cause of mortality in the neonatal population. Commonly used parenteral infection models, however, do not reflect the early course of the disease leaving this critical step of the pathogenesis largely unexplored. Here, we analyzed nasal exposure of 1-day-old newborn mice to Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). We found that nasal, but not intragastric administration, led to early CNS infection in neonate mice. In particular, upon bacterial invasion of the olfactory epithelium, Lm subsequently spread along the sensory neurons entering the brain tissue at the cribriform plate and causing a significant influx of monocytes and neutrophils. CNS infection required listeriolysin for penetration of the olfactory epithelium and ActA, a mediator of intracellular mobility, for translocation into the brain tissue. Taken together, we propose an alternative port of entry and route of infection for neonatal neurolisteriosis and present a novel infection model to mimic the clinical features of late-onset disease in human neonates.
    • Complete genome sequence of C130_2, a novel myovirus infecting pathogenic Escherichia coli and Shigella strains.

      Sváb, Domonkos; Falgenhauer, Linda; Rohde, Manfred; Chakraborty, Trinad; Tóth, István; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-09-20)
      The genome sequence of a novel virulent bacteriophage, named " C130_2", that is morphologically a member of the family Myoviridae is reported. The 41,775-base-pair double-stranded DNA genome of C130_2 contains 59 ORFs but exhibits overall low sequence similarity to bacteriophage genomes for which sequences are publicly available. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that C130_2 represents a new phage type. C130_2 could be propagated well on enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 and other pathogenic E. coli strains, as well as on strains of various Shigella species.
    • Microbiome yarns: microbiome basis of memory,,.

      Timmis, Kenneth; Jebok, Franziska; Molinari, Gabriella; Rohde, Manfred; Timmis, James Kenneth; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-01-01)
    • Lipoteichoic acid deficiency permits normal growth but impairs virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

      Heß, Nathalie; Waldow, Franziska; Kohler, Thomas P; Rohde, Manfred; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Gómez-Mejia, Alejandro; Hain, Torsten; Schwudke, Dominik; Vollmer, Waldemar; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Gisch, Nicolas; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-12-12)
      Teichoic acid (TA), a crucial cell wall constituent of the pathobiont Streptococcus pneumoniae, is bound to peptidoglycan (wall teichoic acid, WTA) or to membrane glycolipids (lipoteichoic acid, LTA). Both TA polymers share a common precursor synthesis pathway, but differ in the final transfer of the TA chain to either peptidoglycan or a glycolipid. Here, we show that LTA exhibits a different linkage conformation compared to WTA, and identify TacL (previously known as RafX) as a putative lipoteichoic acid ligase required for LTA assembly. Pneumococcal mutants deficient in TacL lack LTA and show attenuated virulence in mouse models of acute pneumonia and systemic infections, although they grow normally in culture. Hence, LTA is important for S. pneumoniae to establish systemic infections, and TacL represents a potential target for antimicrobial drug development.
    • Microbiome Yarns: microbiome of the built environment, paranormal microbiology, and the power of single cell genomics1,2,3,4.

      Timmis, Kenneth; Jebok, Franziska; Rohde, Manfred; Molinari, Gabriella; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-05-16)
    • Regulation of Flagellum Biosynthesis in Response to Cell Envelope Stress in Serovar Typhimurium.

      Spöring, Imke; Felgner, Sebastian; Preuße, Matthias; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Rohde, Manfred; Häussler, Susanne; Weiss, Siegfried; Erhardt, Marc (2018-05-01)
      Flagellum-driven motility of serovar Typhimurium facilitates host colonization. However, the large extracellular flagellum is also a prime target for the immune system. As consequence, expression of flagella is bistable within a population of , resulting in flagellated and nonflagellated subpopulations. This allows the bacteria to maximize fitness in hostile environments. The degenerate EAL domain protein RflP (formerly YdiV) is responsible for the bistable expression of flagella by directing the flagellar master regulatory complex FlhDC with respect to proteolytic degradation. Information concerning the environmental cues controlling expression of and thus about the bistable flagellar biosynthesis remains ambiguous. Here, we demonstrated that RflP responds to cell envelope stress and alterations of outer membrane integrity. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) truncation mutants of Typhimurium exhibited increasing motility defects due to downregulation of flagellar gene expression. Transposon mutagenesis and genetic profiling revealed that σ (RpoE) and Rcs phosphorelay-dependent cell envelope stress response systems sense modifications of the lipopolysaccaride, low pH, and activity of the complement system. This subsequently results in activation of RflP expression and degradation of FlhDC via ClpXP. We speculate that the presence of diverse hostile environments inside the host might result in cell envelope damage and would thus trigger the repression of resource-costly and immunogenic flagellum biosynthesis via activation of the cell envelope stress response. Pathogenic bacteria such as Typhimurium sense and adapt to a multitude of changing and stressful environments during host infection. At the initial stage of gastrointestinal colonization, uses flagellum-mediated motility to reach preferred sites of infection. However, the flagellum also constitutes a prime target for the host's immune response. Accordingly, the pathogen needs to determine the spatiotemporal stage of infection and control flagellar biosynthesis in a robust manner. We found that uses signals from cell envelope stress-sensing systems to turn off production of flagella. We speculate that downregulation of flagellum synthesis after cell envelope damage in hostile environments aids survival of during late stages of infection and provides a means to escape recognition by the immune system.
    • Genome biology of a novel lineage of planctomycetes widespread in anoxic aquatic environments.

      Spring, Stefan; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Rohde, Manfred; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-04-26)
      Anaerobic strains affiliated with a novel order-level lineage of the Phycisphaerae class were retrieved from the suboxic zone of a hypersaline cyanobacterial mat and anoxic sediments of solar salterns. Genome sequences of five isolates were obtained and compared with metagenome-assembled genomes representing related uncultured bacteria from various anoxic aquatic environments. Gene content surveys suggest a strictly fermentative saccharolytic metabolism for members of this lineage, which could be confirmed by the phenotypic characterization of isolates. Genetic analyses indicate that the retrieved isolates do not have a canonical origin of DNA replication, but initiate chromosome replication at alternative sites possibly leading to an accelerated evolution. Further potential factors driving evolution and speciation within this clade include genome reduction by metabolic specialization and rearrangements of the genome by mobile genetic elements, which have a high prevalence in strains from hypersaline sediments and mats. Based on genetic and phenotypic data a distinct group of strictly anaerobic heterotrophic planctomycetes within the Phycisphaerae class could be assigned to a novel order that is represented by the proposed genus Sedimentisphaera gen. nov. comprising two novel species, S. salicampi gen. nov., sp. nov. and S. cyanobacteriorum gen. nov., sp. nov. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    • Extracellular Actin Is a Receptor for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

      Raymond, Benjamin B A; Madhkoor, Ranya; Schleicher, Ina; Uphoff, Cord C; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Rohde, Manfred; Padula, Matthew P; Djordjevic, Steven P; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018)
      Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, an agriculturally important porcine pathogen, disrupts the mucociliary escalator causing ciliostasis, loss of cilial function, and epithelial cell death within the porcine lung. Losses to swine production due to growth rate retardation and reduced feed conversion efficiency are severe, and antibiotics are used heavily to control mycoplasmal pneumonia. Notably, little is known about the repertoire of host receptors that M. hyopneumoniae targets to facilitate colonization. Here we show, for the first time, that actin exists extracellularly on porcine epithelial monolayers (PK-15) using surface biotinylation and 3D-Structured Illumination Microscopy (3D-SIM), and that M. hyopneumoniae binds to the extracellular β-actin exposed on the surface of these cells. Consistent with this hypothesis we show: (i) monoclonal antibodies that target β-actin significantly block the ability of M. hyopneumoniae to adhere and colonize PK-15 cells; (ii) microtiter plate binding assays show that M. hyopneumoniae cells bind to monomeric G-actin in a dose dependent manner; (iii) more than 100 M. hyopneumoniae proteins were recovered from affinity-chromatography experiments using immobilized actin as bait; and (iv) biotinylated monomeric actin binds directly to M. hyopneumoniae proteins in ligand blotting studies. Specifically, we show that the P97 cilium adhesin possesses at least two distinct actin-binding regions, and binds monomeric actin with nanomolar affinity. Taken together, these observations suggest that actin may be an important receptor for M. hyopneumoniae within the swine lung and will aid in the future development of intervention strategies against this devastating pathogen. Furthermore, our observations have wider implications for extracellular actin as an important bacterial receptor.
    • Differential magnesium implant corrosion coat formation and contribution to bone bonding.

      Rahim, Muhammad Imran; Weizbauer, Andreas; Evertz, Florian; Hoffmann, Andrea; Rohde, Manfred; Glasmacher, Birgit; Windhagen, Henning; Gross, Gerhard; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Mueller, Peter P; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017)
      Magnesium alloys are presently under investigation as promising biodegradable implant materials with osteoconductive properties. To study the molecular mechanisms involved, the potential contribution of soluble magnesium corrosion products to the stimulation of osteoblastic cell differentiation was examined. However, no evidence for the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation could be obtained when cultured mesenchymal precursor cells were differentiated in the presence of metallic magnesium or in cell culture medium containing elevated magnesium ion levels. Similarly, in soft tissue no bone induction by metallic magnesium or by the corrosion product magnesium hydroxide could be observed in a mouse model. Motivated by the comparatively rapid accumulation solid corrosion products physicochemical processes were examined as an alternative mechanism to explain the stimulation of bone growth by magnesium-based implants. During exposure to physiological solutions a structured corrosion coat formed on magnesium whereby the elements calcium and phosphate were enriched in the outermost layer which could play a role in the established biocompatible behavior of magnesium implants. When magnesium pins were inserted into avital bones, corrosion lead to increases in the pull out force, suggesting that the expanding corrosion layer was interlocking with the surrounding bone. Since mechanical stress is a well-established inducer of bone growth, volume increases caused by the rapid accumulation of corrosion products and the resulting force development could be a key mechanism and provide an explanation for the observed stimulatory effects of magnesium-based implants in hard tissue. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 697-709, 2017.
    • Identification and Characterization of T5-Like Bacteriophages Representing Two Novel Subgroups from Food Products.

      Sváb, Domonkos; Falgenhauer, Linda; Rohde, Manfred; Szabó, Judit; Chakraborty, Trinad; Tóth, István; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018)
      During recent years, interest in the use of bacteriophages as biocontrol agents against foodborne pathogens has increased, particularly for members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, with pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella strains among them. Here, we report the isolation and characterisation of 12 novel T5-like bacteriophages from confiscated food samples. All bacterophages effectively lysed E. coli K-12 strains and were able to infect pathogenic E. coli strains representing enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), and enteroinvasive (EIEC) pathotypes, Shigella dysenteriae, S. sonnei strains, as well as multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli and multiple strains representing different Salmonella enterica serovars. All the bacteriophages exhibited Siphoviridae morphology. Whole genome sequencing of the novel T5-like bacteriophages showed that they represent two distinct groups, with the genome-based grouping correlating to the different host spectra. As these bacteriophages are of food origin, their stability and lack of any virulence genes, as well as their broad and mutually complementary host spectrum makes these new T5-like bacteriophages valuable candidates for use as biocontrol agents against foodborne pathogenic enterobacteria.
    • Microbiome Yarns: human biome reproduction, evolution and visual acuity,,.

      Timmis, Kenneth; Jebok, Franziska; Molinari, Gabriella; Rohde, Manfred; Lahti, Leo; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-01)
    • Labrenzia salina sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of the halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum.

      Camacho, Maria; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio; Rohde, Manfred; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Montero-Calasanz, Maria Del Carmen; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2016-12)
      A novel, halophilic, motile, rod-shaped, Gram-staining-negative and non-endospore forming bacterium, designated Cs25T, was isolated from the rhizosphere of the halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum growing in a tidal flat. Strain Cs25T was observed to be catalase-negative and oxidase-positive, and to hydrolyse hypoxanthine. Growth occurred from 15 to 40 °C, at pH 7.0-10.0 and with 1-11 % (w/v) NaCl. Q-10 was identified as the dominant ubiquinone, and the major cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, 11-methyl C18 : 1ω7c, C20 : 1ω7c and C18 : 0. The polar lipids comprised phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, sulphoquinovosyldiacylglyceride, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The 16S rRNA gene showed 99.19, 98.6 and 98.59 % sequence identity with Labrenzia alba DSM 18320T, L. aggregata DSM 13394T and L. marina DSM 17023T, respectively. Based on the phenotypic and molecular features and DNA-DNA hybridization data, it is concluded that strain Cs25T represents a novel species for which the name Labrenzia salinasp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Cs25T (=DSM 29163T=CECT 8816T).
    • Characterization of the first cultured representative of Verrucomicrobia subdivision 5 indicates the proposal of a novel phylum.

      Spring, Stefan; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian J; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2016)
      The recently isolated strain L21-Fru-ABTrepresents moderately halophilic, obligately anaerobic and saccharolytic bacteria that thrive in the suboxic transition zones of hypersaline microbial mats. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA genes, RpoB proteins and gene content indicated that strain L21-Fru-ABTrepresents a novel species and genus affiliated with a distinct phylum-level lineage originally designated Verrucomicrobia subdivision 5. A survey of environmental 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that members of this newly recognized phylum are wide-spread and ecologically important in various anoxic environments ranging from hypersaline sediments to wastewater and the intestine of animals. Characteristic phenotypic traits of the novel strain included the formation of extracellular polymeric substances, a Gram-negative cell wall containing peptidoglycan and the absence of odd-numbered cellular fatty acids. Unusual metabolic features deduced from analysis of the genome sequence were the production of sucrose as osmoprotectant, an atypical glycolytic pathway lacking pyruvate kinase and the synthesis of isoprenoids via mevalonate. On the basis of the analyses of phenotypic, genomic and environmental data, it is proposed that strain L21-Fru-ABTand related bacteria are specifically adapted to the utilization of sulfated glycopolymers produced in microbial mats or biofilms.
    • Standard susceptibility testing overlooks potent azithromycin activity and cationic peptide synergy against MDR Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

      Kumaraswamy, Monika; Lin, Leo; Olson, Joshua; Sun, Ching-Fang; Nonejuie, Poochit; Corriden, Ross; Döhrmann, Simon; Ali, Syed Raza; Amaro, Deirdre; Rohde, Manfred; Pogliano, Joe; Sakoulas, George; Nizet, Victor; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infectionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr.7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2016-05)
      The Gram-negative bacillus Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SM) is an emerging MDR opportunistic pathogen. Recent studies identify a potentially relevant activity of azithromycin against Gram-negative bacteria overlooked in standard bacteriological testing. We investigated azithromycin activity against SM in testing conditions incorporating mammalian tissue culture medium and host defence factors.
    • Taxonomic analyses of members of the Streptomyces cinnabarinus cluster, description of Streptomyces cinnabarigriseus sp. nov. and Streptomyces davaonensis sp. nov.

      Landwehr, Wiebke; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Mack, Matthias; Schumann, Peter; Atasayar, Ewelina; Hahnke, Richard L; Rohde, Manfred; Martin, Karin; Stadler, Marc; Wink, Joachim; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-12-11)
      Roseoflavin is the only known riboflavin (vitamin B2) analog with antibiotic properties. It is actively taken up by many micro-organisms and targets flavinmononucleotide riboswitches and flavoproteins. It is described as the product of the tentatively named 'Streptomyces davawensis' JCM 4913. Taxonomic analysis of this strain with a polyphasic approach showed that it is very closely related to Streptomyces cinnabarinus (DSM 40467). The two Streptomyces isolates were obtained from different geographical locations (the Philippines and the Kamchatka Peninsula, respectively), their genomes have been sequenced and the question was whether or not the two isolates were representatives of the same species. As we also worked with another isolate of Streptomyces cinnabarinus JS 360, the producer of the cinnabaramides, we wanted to clarify the taxonomic position of the three isolates by using a polyphasic approach. After analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, we found in total 23 species of the genus Streptomyces that showed a similarity higher than 98.5 % to the three strains. We showed that 'S. davawensis' JCM 4913 and S. cinnabarinus DSM 40467 were very closely related but belong to two different species. Hence, we validate 'S. davawensis' as Streptomyces davaonensis sp. nov. with the type strain JCM 4913T (=DSM 101723T). In addition, the cinnabaramide producer can be clearly differentiated from S. davaonensis and this isolate is described as Streptomyces cinnabarigriseus sp. nov. with strain JS360T (=NCCB 100590T=DSM 101724T) as the type strain.