• Cinnamide Derivatives of d -Mannose as Inhibitors of the Bacterial Virulence Factor LecB from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

      Sommer, Roman; Hauck, Dirk; Varrot, Annabelle; Wagner, Stefanie; Audfray, Aymeric; Prestel, Andreas; Möller, Heiko M.; Imberty, Anne; Titz, Alexander; Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS);Saarland University, Building A4.1, 66123 Saarbruecken, Germany.; et al. (2015-12)
    • Ciprofloxacin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules as mucus penetrating drug delivery system intended for the treatment of bacterial infections in cystic fibrosis.

      Torge, Afra; Wagner, Stefanie; Chaves, Paula S; Oliveira, Edilene G; Guterres, Silvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Titz, Alexander; Schneider, Marc; Beck, Ruy C R; Helmholtz Institut für pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (2017-05-10)
      Treatment of bacterial airway infections is essential for cystic fibrosis therapy. However, effectiveness of antibacterial treatment is limited as bacteria inside the mucus are protected from antibiotics and immune response. To overcome this biological barrier, ciprofloxacin was loaded into lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) for high mucus permeability, sustained release and antibacterial activity. Ciprofloxacin-loaded LNC with a mean size of 180nm showed a by 50% increased drug permeation through mucus. In bacterial growth assays, the drug in the LNC had similar minimum inhibitory concentrations as the free drug in P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Interestingly, formation of biofilm-like aggregates, which were observed for S. aureus treated with free ciprofloxacin, was avoided by exposure to LNC. With the combined advantages over the non-encapsulated drug, ciprofloxacin-loaded LNC represent a promising drug delivery system with the prospect of an improved antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis.
    • Covalent Lectin Inhibition and Application in Bacterial Biofilm Imaging.

      Wagner, Stefanie; Hauck, Dirk; Hoffmann, Michael; Sommer, Roman; Joachim, Ines; Müller, Rolf; Imberty, Anne; Varrot, Annabelle; Titz, Alexander; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für pharmazeutische Forchung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (2017-09-28)
      Biofilm formation by pathogenic bacteria is a hallmark of chronic infections. In many cases, lectins play key roles in establishing biofilms. The pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa often exhibiting various drug resistances employs its lectins LecA and LecB as virulence factors and biofilm building blocks. Therefore, inhibition of the function of these proteins is thought to have potential in developing "pathoblockers" preventing biofilm formation and virulence. A covalent lectin inhibitor specific to a carbohydrate binding site is described for the first time. Its application in the LecA-specific in vitro imaging of biofilms formed by P. aeruginosa is also reported.
    • New approaches to control infections: anti-biofilm strategies against gram-negative bacteria.

      Sommer, Roman; Joachim, Ines; Wagner, Stefanie; Titz, Alexander; University of Konstanz, Department of Chemistry and Zukunftskolleg, Universitätsstrasse 10, D-78457 Konstanz. (2013)
      Hospital-acquired bacterial infections, especially with Gram-negative pathogens, present a major threat due to the rapid spread of antibiotic-resistant strains. Targeting mechanisms of bacterial virulence has recently appeared as a promising new therapeutic paradigm. Biofilm formation is a bacterial lifestyle, which offers a survival advantage through its protective matrix against host immune defense and antibiotic treatment. Interfering with biogenesis of adhesive organelles, bacterial communication or carbohydrate-mediated adhesion as anti-biofilm strategies are reviewed.
    • Photorhabdus luminescens lectin A (PllA) - a new probe for detecting α-galactoside-terminating glycoconjugates.

      Beshr, Ghamdan; Sikandar, Asfandyar; Jemiller, Eva-Maria; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Hauck, Dirk; Wagner, Stefanie; Wolf, Eckhard; Koehnke, Jesko; Titz, Alexander; Helmholtz-Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS), Universitycampus E8.1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (2017-09-28)
      Lectins play important roles in infections by pathogenic bacteria, for example, in host colonization, persistence and biofilm formation. The Gram-negative entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens symbiotically lives in insect-infecting Heterorhabditis nematodes and kills the insect host upon invasion by the nematode. The P. luminescens genome harbors the gene plu2096 coding for a novel lectin that we named PllA. We analyzed the binding properties of purified PllA with a glycan array and a binding assay in solution. Both assays revealed a strict specificity of PllA for alpha-galactoside-terminating glycoconjugates. The crystal structures of apo PllA and complexes with three different ligands revealed the molecular basis for the strict specificity of this lectin. Furthermore, we found that a 90 degree twist in subunit orientation leads to a peculiar quaternary structure compared with that of its ortholog LecA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We also investigated the utility of PllA as a probe for detecting alpha-galactosides. The alpha-Gal epitope is present on wild-type pig cells and the main reason for hyperacute organ rejection in pig to primate xenotransplantation. We noted that PllA specifically recognizes this epitope on the glycan array and demonstrated that PllA can be used as a fluorescent probe to detect this epitope on primary porcine cells in vitro. In summary, our biochemical and structural analyses of the P. luminescens lectin PllA have disclosed the structural basis for PllAs high specificity for alpha-galactoside-containing ligands, and we show that PllA can be used to visualize alpha-Gal epitope on porcine tissues.
    • The virulence factor LecB varies in clinical isolates: consequences for ligand binding and drug discovery

      Sommer, Roman; Wagner, Stefanie; Varrot, Annabelle; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Khaledi, Ariane; Häussler, Susanne; Paulson, James C.; Imberty, Anne; Titz, Alexander (2016)