• Adenosine in the inflamed gut: a Janus faced compound.

      Estrela, A B; Abraham, W-R; Helmholtz Center for Infection Research, Chemical Microbiology, Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2011)
      The purine ribonucleoside adenosine (Ado) has been recognized for its regulatory functions in situations of cellular stress like ischemia, hypoxia and inflammation. The importance of extracellular Ado as a modulator in the immune system is a theme of great appreciation and the focus of recent increasing interest in the field of gastrointestinal inflammation. In this review, the different aspects of Ado signaling during inflammatory responses in the gut are discussed, considering the contribution of the four known Ado receptors (ARs; A(1), A(2A), A(2B), and A(3)), their mechanisms and expression patterns. Activation of these receptors in epithelial cells as well as in immune cells recruited to the inflamed intestinal mucosa determines the overall effect, ranging from a protective, anti-inflammatory modulation to a strong pro-inflammatory induction. Here we present the current advances in agonists and antagonists development and their potential therapeutic application studied in animal models of intestinal inflammation. In addition, alternative complementary approaches to manipulate such a complex signaling system are discussed, for example, the use of AR allosteric modulators or interference with Ado metabolism. Special features of the gut environment are taken into account: the contribution of diet components; the involvement of Ado in intestinal infections; the interactions with the gut microbiome, particularly, the recent exciting finding that an intestinal bacterium can directly produce extracellular Ado in response to host defense mechanisms in an inflammation scenario. Understanding each component of this dynamic system will broaden the possibilities for applying Ado signaling as a therapeutic target in gut inflammation.
    • Brevundimonas vancanneytii sp. nov., isolated from blood of a patient with endocarditis.

      Estrela, Andréia B; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; Helmholtz Center for Infection Research, Chemical Microbiology, Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2010-09)
      A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterial strain, designated LMG 2337(T), was isolated from the blood of a patient with endocarditis and characterized. The strain was affiliated with the alphaproteobacterial genus Brevundimonas, with Brevundimonas diminuta LMG 2089(T) (98.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Brevundimonas terrae KSL-145(T) (97.5 %) as its closest relatives. This affiliation was supported by chemotaxonomic data: the G+C content was 66.3 mol %, the major polar lipids were phosphatidyl diacylglycerol, sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol and phosphatidyl glucopyranosyl diacylglycerol and the major fatty acids were summed feature 7 (one or more of C(18 : 1)ω 7c, C(18 : 1)ω 9t and C(18 : 1)ω 12t) and C(16 : 0). Strain LMG 2337(T) displayed an unusually broad substrate spectrum. The results from DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests allowed the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain LMG 2337(T) from all of the type strains of hitherto-described Brevundimonas species. The strain therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Brevundimonas vancanneytii sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain LMG 2337(T) (=CCUG 1797(T) =ATCC 14736(T)).