• Biodegradable chitosan nanoparticle coatings on titanium for the delivery of BMP-2.

      Poth, Nils; Seiffart, Virginia; Gross, Gerhard; Menzel, Henning; Dempwolf, Wibke; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2015)
      A simple method for the functionalization of a common implant material (Ti6Al4V) with biodegradable, drug loaded chitosan-tripolyphosphate (CS-TPP) nanoparticles is developed in order to enhance the osseointegration of endoprostheses after revision operations. The chitosan used has a tailored degree of acetylation which allows for a fast biodegradation by lysozyme. The degradability of chitosan is proven via viscometry. Characteristics and degradation of nanoparticles formed with TPP are analyzed using dynamic light scattering. The particle degradation via lysozyme displays a decrease in particle diameter of 40% after 4 days. Drug loading and release is investigated for the nanoparticles with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), using ELISA and the BRE luciferase test for quantification and bioactivity evaluation. Furthermore, nanoparticle coatings on titanium substrates are created via spray-coating and analyzed by ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Drug loaded nanoparticle coatings with biologically active BMP-2 are obtained in vitro within this work. Additionally, an in vivo study in mice indicates the dose dependent induction of ectopic bone growth through CS-TPP-BMP-2 nanoparticles. These results show that biodegradable CS-TPP coatings can be utilized to present biologically active BMP-2 on common implant materials like Ti6Al4V.
    • Increased susceptibility for superinfection with Streptococcus pneumoniae during influenza virus infection is not caused by TLR7-mediated lymphopenia.

      Stegemann, Sabine; Dahlberg, Sofia; Kröger, Andrea; Gereke, Marcus; Bruder, Dunja; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Gunzer, Matthias; Otto-von-Guericke University, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Magdeburg, Germany. (2009)
      Influenza A virus (IAV) causes respiratory tract infections leading to recurring epidemics with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In the past century IAV induced several world-wide pandemics, the most aggressive occurring in 1918 with a death toll of 20-50 million cases. However, infection with IAV alone is rarely fatal. Instead, death associated with IAV is usually mediated by superinfection with bacteria, mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae. The reasons for this increased susceptibility to bacterial superinfection have not been fully elucidated. We previously demonstrated that triggering of TLR7 causes immune incompetence in mice by induction of lymphopenia. IAV is recognized by TLR7 and infections can lead to lymphopenia. Since lymphocytes are critical to protect from S. pneumoniae it has long been speculated that IAV-induced lymphopenia might mediate increased susceptibility to superinfection. Here we show that sub-lethal pre-infections of mice with IAV-PR8/A/34 strongly increased their mortality in non-lethal SP infections, surprisingly despite the absence of detectable lymphopenia. In contrast to SP-infection alone co-infected animals were unable to control the exponential growth of SP. However, lymphopenia forced by TLR7-triggering or antibody-mediated neutropenia did not increase SP-susceptibility or compromise the ability to control SP growth. Thus, the immune-incompetence caused by transient lympho- or leukopenia is not sufficient to inhibit potent antibacterial responses of the host and mechanisms distinct from leukodepletion must account for increased bacterial superinfection during viral defence.