• The Effect of Cytochalasans on the Actin Cytoskeleton of Eukaryotic Cells and Preliminary Structure⁻Activity Relationships.

      Kretz, Robin; Wendt, Lucile; Wongkanoun, Sarunyou; Luangsa-Ard, J Jennifer; Surup, Frank; Helaly, Soleiman E; Noumeur, Sara R; Stadler, Marc; Stradal, Theresia E B; HZI, Helmholtz Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig Germany. (MDPI, 2019-02-19)
      In our ongoing search for new bioactive fungal metabolites, two new cytochalasans were isolated from stromata of the hypoxylaceous ascomycete Hypoxylon fragiforme. Their structures were elucidated via high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Together with 23 additional cytochalasans isolated from ascomata and mycelial cultures of different Ascomycota, they were tested on their ability to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton of mammal cells in a preliminary structure⁻activity relationship study. Out of all structural features, the presence of hydroxyl group at the C7 and C18 residues, as well as their stereochemistry, were determined as important factors affecting the potential to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, reversibility of the actin disrupting effects was tested, revealing no direct correlations between potency and reversibility in the tested compound group. Since the diverse bioactivity of cytochalasans is interesting for various applications in eukaryotes, the exact effect on eukaryotic cells will need to be determined, e.g., by follow-up studies involving medicinal chemistry and by inclusion of additional natural cytochalasans. The results are also discussed in relation to previous studies in the literature, including a recent report on the anti-Biofilm activities of essentially the same panel of compounds against the pathogenic bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus.
    • The Effect of Cytochalasans on the Actin Cytoskeleton of Eukaryotic Cells and Preliminary Structure⁻Activity Relationships.

      Kretz, Robin; Wendt, Lucile; Wongkanoun, Sarunyou; Luangsa-Ard, J Jennifer; Surup, Frank; Helaly, Soleiman E; Noumeur, Sara R; Stadler, Marc; Stradal, Theresia E B; HZI, Helmholtz Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig Germany. (MDPI, 2019-02-19)
      In our ongoing search for new bioactive fungal metabolites, two new cytochalasans were isolated from stromata of the hypoxylaceous ascomycete Hypoxylon fragiforme. Their structures were elucidated via high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Together with 23 additional cytochalasans isolated from ascomata and mycelial cultures of different Ascomycota, they were tested on their ability to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton of mammal cells in a preliminary structure–activity relationship study. Out of all structural features, the presence of hydroxyl group at the C7 and C18 residues, as well as their stereochemistry, were determined as important factors affecting the potential to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, reversibility of the actin disrupting effects was tested, revealing no direct correlations between potency and reversibility in the tested compound group. Since the diverse bioactivity of cytochalasans is interesting for various applications in eukaryotes, the exact effect on eukaryotic cells will need to be determined, e.g., by follow-up studies involving medicinal chemistry and by inclusion of additional natural cytochalasans. The results are also discussed in relation to previous studies in the literature, including a recent report on the anti-Biofilm activities of essentially the same panel of compounds against the pathogenic bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus. View Full-Text
    • Studies on the biologically active secondary metabolites of the new spider parasitic fungus Gibellula gamsii

      Kuephadungphan, Wilawan; Macabeo, Allan Patrick G.; Luangsa-ard, Janet Jennifer; Tasanathai, Kanoksri; Thanakitpipattana, Donnaya; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Yuyama, Kamila; Stadler, Marc
    • Structures of an RNA polymerase promoter melting intermediate elucidate DNA unwinding.

      Boyaci, Hande; Chen, James; Jansen, Rolf; Darst, Seth A; Campbell, Elizabeth A; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Nature publishing group, 2019-01-09)
      A key regulated step of transcription is promoter melting by RNA polymerase (RNAP) to form the open promoter complex
    • Bacillus methylotrophicus ASWU-C2, a strain inhabiting hot desert soil, a new source for antibacterial bacillopyrone, pyrophen, and cyclopeptides

      Helaly, Soleiman E.; Hamad, Zainab; El Sayed, Magdi A.; Abdel-Motaal, Fatma F.; Nassar, Mahmoud I.; Ito, Shin-ichi; Stadler, Marc; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Walter de Gruyter, 2018-12-14)
    • Volatiles from the hypoxylaceous fungi and Hypoxylon macrocarpum.

      Rinkel, Jan; Babczyk, Alexander; Wang, Tao; Stadler, Marc; Dickschat, Jeroen S; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-01-01)
      The volatiles emitted by the ascomycetes
    • An endothelial cell line infected by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) allows the investigation of Kaposi's sarcoma and the validation of novel viral inhibitors in vitro and in vivo.

      Dubich, Tatyana; Lieske, Anna; Santag, Susann; Beauclair, Guillaume; Rückert, Jessica; Herrmann, Jennifer; Gorges, Jan; Büsche, Guntram; Kazmaier, Uli; Hauser, Hansjörg; Stadler, Marc; Schulz, Thomas F; Wirth, Dagmar; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2019-01-04)
      Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a tumor of endothelial origin predominantly affecting immunosuppressed individuals. Up to date, vaccines and targeted therapies are not available. Screening and identification of anti-viral compounds are compromised by the lack of scalable cell culture systems reflecting properties of virus-transformed cells in patients. Further, the strict specificity of the virus for humans limits the development of in vivo models. In this study, we exploited a conditionally immortalized human endothelial cell line for establishment of in vitro 2D and 3D KSHV latency models and the generation of KS-like xenograft tumors in mice. Importantly, the invasive properties and tumor formation could be completely reverted by purging KSHV from the cells, confirming that tumor formation is dependent on the continued presence of KSHV, rather than being a consequence of irreversible transformation of the infected cells. Upon testing a library of 260 natural metabolites, we selected the compounds that induced viral loss or reduced the invasiveness of infected cells in 2D and 3D endothelial cell culture systems. The efficacy of selected compounds against KSHV-induced tumor formation was verified in the xenograft model. Together, this study shows that the combined use of anti-viral and anti-tumor assays based on the same cell line is predictive for tumor reduction in vivo and therefore allows faithful selection of novel drug candidates against Kaposi's sarcoma. KEY MESSAGES: Novel 2D, 3D, and xenograft mouse models mimic the consequences of KSHV infection. KSHV-induced tumorigenesis can be reverted upon purging the cells from the virus. A 3D invasiveness assay is predictive for tumor reduction in vivo. Chondramid B, epothilone B, and pretubulysin D diminish KS-like lesions in vivo.
    • Cytochalasans Act as Inhibitors of Biofilm Formation of Staphylococcus Aureus.

      Yuyama, Kamila Tomoko; Wendt, Lucile; Surup, Frank; Kretz, Robin; Chepkirui, Clara; Wittstein, Kathrin; Boonlarppradab, Chollaratt; Wongkanoun, Sarunyou; Luangsa-Ard, Jennifer; Stadler, Marc; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2018-10-30)
      During the course of our ongoing work to discover new inhibitors of biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus from fungal sources, we observed biofilm inhibition by cytochalasans isolated from cultures of the ascomycete Hypoxylon fragiforme for the first time. Two new compounds were purified by a bioassay-guided fractionation procedure; their structures were elucidated subsequently by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). This unexpected finding prompted us to test further cytochalasans from other fungi and from commercial sources for comparison. Out of 21 cytochalasans, 13 showed significant inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation at subtoxic levels. These findings indicate the potential of cytochalasans as biofilm inhibitors for the first time, also because the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) are independent of the anti-biofilm activities. However, cytochalasans are known to be inhibitors of actin, making some of them very toxic for eukaryotic cells. Since the chemical structures of the tested compounds were rather diverse, the inclusion of additional derivatives, as well as the evaluation of their selectivity against mammalian cells vs. the bacterium, will be necessary as next step in order to develop structure-activity relationships and identify the optimal candidates for development of an anti-biofilm agent. View Full-Text
    • Screening for inhibitors of mutacin synthesis in Streptococcus mutans using fluorescent reporter strains.

      Premnath, Priyanka; Reck, Michael; Wittstein, Kathrin; Stadler, Marc; Wagner-Döbler, Irene; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (BMC, 2018-03-27)
      Within the polymicrobial dental plaque biofilm, bacteria kill competitors by excreting mixtures of bacteriocins, resulting in improved fitness and survival. Inhibiting their bacteriocin synthesis might therefore be a useful strategy to eliminate specific pathogens. We used Streptococcus mutans, a highly acidogenic inhabitant of dental plaque, as a model and searched for natural products that reduced mutacin synthesis. To this end we fused the promoter of mutacin VI to the GFP+ gene and integrated the construct into the genome of S. mutans UA159 by single homologous recombination. The resulting reporter strain 423p - gfp + was used to screen 297 secondary metabolites from different sources, mainly myxobacteria and fungi, for their ability to reduce the fluorescence of the fully induced reporter strain by > 50% while growth was almost unaffected (> 90% of control). Seven compounds with different chemical structures and different modes of action were identified. Erinacine C was subsequently validated and shown to inhibit transcription of all three mutacins of S. mutans. The areas of the inhibition zones of the sensor strains S. sanguinis and Lactococcus lactis were reduced by 35% to 61% in comparison to controls in the presence of erinacine C, demonstrating that the amount of active mutacins in the culture supernatants of S. mutans was reduced. Erinacines are cyathane diterpenes that were extracted from cultures of the edible mushroom Hericium erinaceus. They have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and neuroprotective effects. For erinacine C, a new biological activity was found here. We demonstrate the successful development of a whole-cell fluorescent reporter for the screening of natural compounds and report that erinacine C suppresses mutacin synthesis in S. mutans without affecting cell viability.
    • Biofilm Inhibitory Abscisic Acid Derivatives from the Plant-Associated Dothideomycete Fungus, sp.

      Phukhamsakda, Chayanard; Macabeo, Allan Patrick G; Yuyama, Kamila Tomoko; Hyde, Kevin David; Stadler, Marc; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-08-30)
      Roussoella species are well recorded from both monocotyledons and dicotyledons. As part of a research program to discover biologically active compounds from plant-associated Dothideomycetes in Thailand, the strain Roussoella sp. (MFLUCC 17-2059), which represents an undescribed species, was isolated from Clematis subumbellata Kurz, fermented in yeast-malt medium and explored for its secondary metabolite production. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract yielded the new abscisic acid derivative, roussoellenic acid (1), along with pestabacillin B (2), a related congener, and the cyclodipeptide, cyclo(S-Pro-S-Ile) (3). The structure of 1 was determined by 2D NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESIMS data analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 showed inhibitory activity on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus. The biofilm formation of S. aureus was reduced to 34% at 16 µg/mL by roussoellenic acid (1), while pestabacillin B (2) only showed 36% inhibition at 256 µg/mL. In addition, compound 1 also had weak cytotoxic effects on L929 murine fibroblasts and human KB3-1 cancer cells.
    • Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa.

      Zamora, Juan Carlos; Svensson, Måns; Kirschner, Roland; Olariaga, Ibai; Ryman, Svengunnar; Parra, Luis Alberto; Geml, József; Rosling, Anna; Adamčík, Slavomír; Ahti, Teuvo; Aime, M Catherine; Ainsworth, A Martyn; Albert, László; Albertó, Edgardo; García, Alberto Altés; Ageev, Dmitry; Agerer, Reinhard; Aguirre-Hudson, Begoña; Ammirati, Joe; Andersson, Harry; Angelini, Claudio; Antonín, Vladimír; Aoki, Takayuki; Aptroot, André; Argaud, Didier; Sosa, Blanca Imelda Arguello; Aronsen, Arne; Arup, Ulf; Asgari, Bita; Assyov, Boris; Atienza, Violeta; Bandini, Ditte; Baptista-Ferreira, João Luís; Baral, Hans-Otto; Baroni, Tim; Barreto, Robert Weingart; Beker, Henry; Bell, Ann; Bellanger, Jean-Michel; Bellù, Francesco; Bemmann, Martin; Bendiksby, Mika; Bendiksen, Egil; Bendiksen, Katriina; Benedek, Lajos; Bérešová-Guttová, Anna; Berger, Franz; Berndt, Reinhard; Bernicchia, Annarosa; Biketova, Alona Yu; Bizio, Enrico; Bjork, Curtis; Boekhout, Teun; Boertmann, David; Böhning, Tanja; Boittin, Florent; Boluda, Carlos G; Boomsluiter, Menno W; Borovička, Jan; Brandrud, Tor Erik; Braun, Uwe; Brodo, Irwin; Bulyonkova, Tatiana; Burdsall, Harold H; Buyck, Bart; Burgaz, Ana Rosa; Calatayud, Vicent; Callac, Philippe; Campo, Emanuele; Candusso, Massimo; Capoen, Brigitte; Carbó, Joaquim; Carbone, Matteo; Castañeda-Ruiz, Rafael F; Castellano, Michael A; Chen, Jie; Clerc, Philippe; Consiglio, Giovanni; Corriol, Gilles; Courtecuisse, Régis; Crespo, Ana; Cripps, Cathy; Crous, Pedro W; da Silva, Gladstone Alves; da Silva, Meiriele; Dam, Marjo; Dam, Nico; Dämmrich, Frank; Das, Kanad; Davies, Linda; De Crop, Eske; De Kesel, Andre; De Lange, Ruben; De Madrignac Bonzi, Bárbara; Dela Cruz, Thomas Edison E; Delgat, Lynn; Demoulin, Vincent; Desjardin, Dennis E; Diederich, Paul; Dima, Bálint; Dios, Maria Martha; Divakar, Pradeep Kumar; Douanla-Meli, Clovis; Douglas, Brian; Drechsler-Santos, Elisandro Ricardo; Dyer, Paul S; Eberhardt, Ursula; Ertz, Damien; Esteve-Raventós, Fernando; Salazar, Javier Angel Etayo; Evenson, Vera; Eyssartier, Guillaume; Farkas, Edit; Favre, Alain; Fedosova, Anna G; Filippa, Mario; Finy, Péter; Flakus, Adam; Fos, Simón; Fournier, Jacques; Fraiture, André; Franchi, Paolo; Molano, Ana Esperanza Franco; Friebes, Gernot; Frisch, Andreas; Fryday, Alan; Furci, Giuliana; Márquez, Ricardo Galán; Garbelotto, Matteo; García-Martín, Joaquina María; Otálora, Mónica A García; Sánchez, Dania García; Gardiennet, Alain; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Benavent, Isaac Garrido; Gates, Genevieve; da Cruz Lima Gerlach, Alice; Ghobad-Nejhad, Masoomeh; Gibertoni, Tatiana B; Grebenc, Tine; Greilhuber, Irmgard; Grishkan, Bella; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Grube, Martin; Gruhn, Gérald; Gueidan, Cécile; Gulden, Gro; Gusmão, Luis Fp; Hafellner, Josef; Hairaud, Michel; Halama, Marek; Hallenberg, Nils; Halling, Roy E; Hansen, Karen; Harder, Christoffer Bugge; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob; Helleman, Stip; Henriot, Alain; Hernandez-Restrepo, Margarita; Herve, Raphaël; Hobart, Caroline; Hoffmeister, Mascha; Høiland, Klaus; Holec, Jan; Holien, Håkon; Hughes, Karen; Hubka, Vit; Huhtinen, Seppo; Ivančević, Boris; Jagers, Marian; Jaklitsch, Walter; Jansen, AnnaElise; Jayawardena, Ruvishika S; Jeppesen, Thomas Stjernegaard; Jeppson, Mikael; Johnston, Peter; Jørgensen, Per Magnus; Kärnefelt, Ingvar; Kalinina, Liudmila B; Kantvilas, Gintaras; Karadelev, Mitko; Kasuya, Taiga; Kautmanová, Ivona; Kerrigan, Richard W; Kirchmair, Martin; Kiyashko, Anna; Knapp, Dániel G; Knudsen, Henning; Knudsen, Kerry; Knutsson, Tommy; Kolařík, Miroslav; Kõljalg, Urmas; Košuthová, Alica; Koszka, Attila; Kotiranta, Heikki; Kotkova, Vera; Koukol, Ondřej; Kout, Jiří; Kovács, Gábor M; Kříž, Martin; Kruys, Åsa; Kučera, Viktor; Kudzma, Linas; Kuhar, Francisco; Kukwa, Martin; Arun Kumar, T K; Kunca, Vladimír; Kušan, Ivana; Kuyper, Thomas W; Lado, Carlos; Læssøe, Thomas; Lainé, Patrice; Langer, Ewald; Larsson, Ellen; Larsson, Karl-Henrik; Laursen, Gary; Lechat, Christian; Lee, Serena; Lendemer, James C; Levin, Laura; Lindemann, Uwe; Lindström, Håkan; Liu, Xingzhong; Hernandez, Regulo Carlos Llarena; Llop, Esteve; Locsmándi, Csaba; Lodge, Deborah Jean; Loizides, Michael; Lőkös, László; Luangsa-Ard, Jennifer; Lüderitz, Matthias; Lumbsch, Thorsten; Lutz, Matthias; Mahoney, Dan; Malysheva, Ekaterina; Malysheva, Vera; Manimohan, Patinjareveettil; Marin-Felix, Yasmina; Marques, Guilhermina; Martínez-Gil, Rubén; Marson, Guy; Mata, Gerardo; Matheny, P Brandon; Mathiassen, Geir Harald; Matočec, Neven; Mayrhofer, Helmut; Mehrabi, Mehdi; Melo, Ireneia; Mešić, Armin; Methven, Andrew S; Miettinen, Otto; Romero, Ana M Millanes; Miller, Andrew N; Mitchell, James K; Moberg, Roland; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Moreno, Gabriel; Morozova, Olga; Morte, Asunción; Muggia, Lucia; González, Guillermo Muñoz; Myllys, Leena; Nagy, István; Nagy, László G; Neves, Maria Alice; Niemelä, Tuomo; Nimis, Pier Luigi; Niveiro, Nicolas; Noordeloos, Machiel E; Nordin, Anders; Noumeur, Sara Raouia; Novozhilov, Yuri; Nuytinck, Jorinde; Ohenoja, Esteri; Fiuza, Patricia Oliveira; Orange, Alan; Ordynets, Alexander; Ortiz-Santana, Beatriz; Pacheco, Leticia; Pál-Fám, Ferenc; Palacio, Melissa; Palice, Zdeněk; Papp, Viktor; Pärtel, Kadri; Pawlowska, Julia; Paz, Aurelia; Peintner, Ursula; Pennycook, Shaun; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; Daniëls, Pablo Pérez; Pérez-De-Gregorio Capella, Miquel À; Del Amo, Carlos Manuel Pérez; Gorjón, Sergio Pérez; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Pérez-Vargas, Israel; Perry, Brian A; Petersen, Jens H; Petersen, Ronald H; Pfister, Donald H; Phukhamsakda, Chayanard; Piątek, Marcin; Piepenbring, Meike; Pino-Bodas, Raquel; Esquivel, Juan Pablo Pinzón; Pirot, Paul; Popov, Eugene S; Popoff, Orlando; Álvaro, María Prieto; Printzen, Christian; Psurtseva, Nadezhda; Purahong, Witoon; Quijada, Luis; Rambold, Gerhard; Ramírez, Natalia A; Raja, Huzefa; Raspé, Olivier; Raymundo, Tania; Réblová, Martina; Rebriev, Yury A; de Dios Reyes García, Juan; Ripoll, Miguel Ángel Ribes; Richard, Franck; Richardson, Mike J; Rico, Víctor J; Robledo, Gerardo Lucio; Barbosa, Flavia Rodrigues; Rodriguez-Caycedo, Cristina; Rodriguez-Flakus, Pamela; Ronikier, Anna; Casas, Luis Rubio; Rusevska, Katerina; Saar, Günter; Saar, Irja; Salcedo, Isabel; Martínez, Sergio M Salcedo; Montoya, Carlos A Salvador; Sánchez-Ramírez, Santiago; Sandoval-Sierra, J Vladimir; Santamaria, Sergi; Monteiro, Josiane Santana; Schroers, Hans Josef; Schulz, Barbara; Schmidt-Stohn, Geert; Schumacher, Trond; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice; Ševčíková, Hana; Shchepin, Oleg; Shirouzu, Takashi; Shiryaev, Anton; Siepe, Klaus; Sir, Esteban B; Sohrabi, Mohammad; Soop, Karl; Spirin, Viacheslav; Spribille, Toby; Stadler, Marc; Stalpers, Joost; Stenroos, Soili; Suija, Ave; Sunhede, Stellan; Svantesson, Sten; Svensson, Sigvard; Svetasheva, Tatyana Yu; Świerkosz, Krzysztof; Tamm, Heidi; Taskin, Hatira; Taudière, Adrien; Tedebrand, Jan-Olof; Lahoz, Raúl Tena; Temina, Marina; Thell, Arne; Thines, Marco; Thor, Göran; Thüs, Holger; Tibell, Leif; Tibell, Sanja; Timdal, Einar; Tkalčec, Zdenko; Tønsberg, Tor; Trichies, Gérard; Triebel, Dagmar; Tsurykau, Andrei; Tulloss, Rodham E; Tuovinen, Veera; Sosa, Miguel Ulloa; Urcelay, Carlos; Valade, François; Garza, Ricardo Valenzuela; van den Boom, Pieter; Van Vooren, Nicolas; Vasco-Palacios, Aida M; Vauras, Jukka; Velasco Santos, Juan Manuel; Vellinga, Else; Verbeken, Annemieke; Vetlesen, Per; Vizzini, Alfredo; Voglmayr, Hermann; Volobuev, Sergey; von Brackel, Wolfgang; Voronina, Elena; Walther, Grit; Watling, Roy; Weber, Evi; Wedin, Mats; Weholt, Øyvind; Westberg, Martin; Yurchenko, Eugene; Zehnálek, Petr; Zhang, Huang; Zhurbenko, Mikhail P; Ekman, Stefan (2018-06-01)
      Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11th International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physical objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under the terms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN.
    • Antiviral 4-Hydroxypleurogrisein and Antimicrobial Pleurotin Derivatives from Cultures of the Nematophagous Basidiomycete .

      Sandargo, Birthe; Thongbai, Benjarong; Praditya, Dimas; Steinmann, Eike; Stadler, Marc; Surup, Frank; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (2018-10-19)
      4-Hydroxypleurogrisein, a congener of the anticancer-lead compound pleurotin, as well as six further derivatives were isolated from the basidiomycete Hohenbuehelia grisea, strain MFLUCC 12-0451. The structures were elucidated utilizing high resolution electron spray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) and 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral data and evaluated for their biological activities; for leucopleurotin, we provide Xray data. While most congeners showed moderate antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity, 4-hydroxypleurogrisein emerged as an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus infectivity in mammalian liver cells.
    • Ijuhya vitellina sp. nov., a novel source for chaetoglobosin A, is a destructive parasite of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi.

      Ashrafi, Samad; Helaly, Soleiman; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Stadler, Marc; Richert-Poeggeler, Katja R; Dababat, Abdelfattah A; Maier, Wolfgang; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-01-01)
      Cyst nematodes are globally important pathogens in agriculture. Their sedentary lifestyle and long-term association with the roots of host plants render cyst nematodes especially good targets for attack by parasitic fungi. In this context fungi were specifically isolated from nematode eggs of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi. Here, Ijuhya vitellina (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Bionectriaceae), encountered in wheat fields in Turkey, is newly described on the basis of phylogenetic analyses, morphological characters and life-style related inferences. The species destructively parasitises eggs inside cysts of H. filipjevi. The parasitism was reproduced in in vitro studies. Infected eggs were found to harbour microsclerotia produced by I. vitellina that resemble long-term survival structures also known from other ascomycetes. Microsclerotia were also formed by this species in pure cultures obtained from both, solitarily isolated infected eggs obtained from fields and artificially infected eggs. Hyphae penetrating the eggshell colonised the interior of eggs and became transformed into multicellular, chlamydospore-like structures that developed into microsclerotia. When isolated on artificial media, microsclerotia germinated to produce multiple emerging hyphae. The specific nature of morphological structures produced by I. vitellina inside nematode eggs is interpreted as a unique mode of interaction allowing long-term survival of the fungus inside nematode cysts that are known to survive periods of drought or other harsh environmental conditions. Generic classification of the new species is based on molecular phylogenetic inferences using five different gene regions. I. vitellina is the only species of the genus known to parasitise nematodes and produce microsclerotia. Metabolomic analyses revealed that within the Ijuhya species studied here, only I. vitellina produces chaetoglobosin A and its derivate 19-O-acetylchaetoglobosin A. Nematicidal and nematode-inhibiting activities of these compounds have been demonstrated suggesting that the production of these compounds may represent an adaptation to nematode parasitism.
    • An unprecedented spiro [furan-2,1’-indene]-3-one derivative and other nematicidal and antimicrobial metabolites from Sanghuangporus sp. (Hymenochaetaceae, Basidiomycota) collected in Kenya

      Chepkirui, Clara; Cheng, Tian; Matasyoh, Josphat; Decock, Cony; Stadler, Marc; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany.
      Bioassay guided fractionation of extracts derived from submerged cultures of a Sanghuangporus sp. (i.e., the genus that was until recently referred to as the “Inonotus linteus complex” of medicinal mushrooms) originating from Kenya led to the isolation of a new spiro [furan-2,1’-indine]-3-one derivative, for which we propose the trivial name phelligridin L (1) together with the known compounds 3,14′-bihispidinyl (2), hispidin (3), ionylideneacetic acid (4), 1S-(2E)-5-[(1R)-2,2-dimethyl-6-methylidenecyclohexyl]-3-methylpent-2-enoic acid (5), phellidine E (6) and phellidine D (7). Compounds 1–3, showed moderate nematicidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans with LD50 of 12.5 μg/m. The nematicidal activity of 3, 14′-bihispidinyl and hispidin (1, 2) has not been reported before. Furthermore, compounds 1–5 demonstrated moderate antimicrobial activity against various test organisms.
    • New secondary metabolites produced by the phytopathogenic fungus Wilsonomyces carpophilus

      Narmani, Abolfazl; Teponno, Rémy Bertrand; Arzanlou, Mahdi; Babai-Ahari, Asadollah; Stadler, Marc; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany.
      wo new metabolites possessing the unusual 1-oxa-7-azaspiro[4.4]non-2- ene-4,6-dione core (2, 3) along with the recently described pseurotin A3 (1) were isolated from the pathogenic fungus Wilsonomyces carpophilus(previously named Stigmina carpophila). The producer organism was obtained from Prunus armeniaca collected in Iran and was identified by morphological and molecular phylogenetic methods. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis, high-resolution mass spectrometry and ECD analysis. The compounds were screened for their antimicrobial, cytotoxic, nematicidal and biofilm inhibition activities but, no significant effect was observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of secondary metabolites produced by W. carpophilus.
    • Two novel species of (Parabambusicolaceae, Pleosporales) with their phoma-like asexual morphs.

      Phukhamsakda, Chayanard; Bhat, Darbhe J; Hongsanan, Sinang; Xu, Jian-Chu; Stadler, Marc; Hyde, Kevin D; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-01-01)
      The monotypic genus
    • Large Scale Production and Downstream Processing of Labyrinthopeptins from the Actinobacterium .

      Rupcic, Zeljka; Hüttel, Stephan; Bernecker, Steffen; Kanaki, Sae; Stadler, Marc; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-06-05)
      A method was established for the production of 1.2-fold and 4.2-fold increased amounts of the antiviral and central nervous system-active lantipeptides, labyrinthopeptins A1 and A2, respectively, isolated from the actinobacterium
    • New nematicidal and antimicrobial secondary metabolites from a new species in the new genus, .

      Rupcic, Zeljka; Chepkirui, Clara; Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita; Crous, Pedro W; Luangsa-Ard, Janet Jennifer; Stadler, Marc; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-01-01)
      During the course of a study on the functional biodiversity of the mycobiota inhabiting rainforests in Thailand, a fungal strain was isolated from a plant sample and shown to represent an undescribed species, as inferred from a combination of morphological and molecular phylogenetic methods. Molecular phylogenetic analyses, based on four DNA loci, revealed a phylogenetic tree with the newly generated sequences clustering in a separate branch, together with members of the Sulcatisporaceae (Pleosporales, Ascomycota). The Thai specimen morphologically resembled
    • New nematicidal and antimicrobial secondary metabolites from a new species in the new genus, .

      Rupcic, Zeljka; Chepkirui, Clara; Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita; Crous, Pedro W; Luangsa-Ard, Janet Jennifer; Stadler, Marc; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-01-01)
      During the course of a study on the functional biodiversity of the mycobiota inhabiting rainforests in Thailand, a fungal strain was isolated from a plant sample and shown to represent an undescribed species, as inferred from a combination of morphological and molecular phylogenetic methods. Molecular phylogenetic analyses, based on four DNA loci, revealed a phylogenetic tree with the newly generated sequences clustering in a separate branch, together with members of the Sulcatisporaceae (Pleosporales, Ascomycota). The Thai specimen morphologically resembled
    • Volatiles from the xylarialean fungus .

      Dickschat, Jeroen S; Wang, Tao; Stadler, Marc; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany.
      The volatiles emitted by agar plate cultures of the xylarialean fungus were investigated by use of a closed loop stripping apparatus in combination with GC-MS. Several aromatic compounds were found that could only be identified by comparison to all possible constitutional isomers with different ring substitution patterns. For the set of identified compounds a plausible biosynthetic scheme was suggested that gives further support for the assigned structures.