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dc.contributor.authorWalter, Stephanie
dc.contributor.authorRasche, Andrea
dc.contributor.authorMoreira-Soto, Andrés
dc.contributor.authorPfaender, Stephanie
dc.contributor.authorBletsa, Magda
dc.contributor.authorCorman, Victor Max
dc.contributor.authorAguilar-Setien, Alvaro
dc.contributor.authorGarcía-Lacy, Fernando
dc.contributor.authorHans, Aymeric
dc.contributor.authorTodt, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorSchuler, Gerhard
dc.contributor.authorShnaiderman-Torban, Anat
dc.contributor.authorSteinman, Amir
dc.contributor.authorRoncoroni, Cristina
dc.contributor.authorVeneziano, Vincenzo
dc.contributor.authorRusenova, Nikolina
dc.contributor.authorSandev, Nikolay
dc.contributor.authorRusenov, Anton
dc.contributor.authorZapryanova, Dimitrinka
dc.contributor.authorGarcía-Bocanegra, Ignacio
dc.contributor.authorJores, Joerg
dc.contributor.authorCarluccio, Augusto
dc.contributor.authorVeronesi, Maria Cristina
dc.contributor.authorCavalleri, Jessika M V
dc.contributor.authorDrosten, Christian
dc.contributor.authorLemey, Philippe
dc.contributor.authorSteinmann, Eike
dc.contributor.authorDrexler, Jan Felix
dc.date.accessioned2017-11-03T15:05:53Z
dc.date.available2017-11-03T15:05:53Z
dc.date.issued2017-01-01
dc.identifier.citationDifferential Infection Patterns and Recent Evolutionary Origins of Equine Hepaciviruses in Donkeys. 2017, 91 (1) J. Virol.en
dc.identifier.issn1098-5514
dc.identifier.pmid27795428
dc.identifier.doi10.1128/JVI.01711-16
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10033/621159
dc.description.abstractThe hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major human pathogen. Genetically related viruses in animals suggest a zoonotic origin of HCV. The closest relative of HCV is found in horses (termed equine hepacivirus [EqHV]). However, low EqHV genetic diversity implies relatively recent acquisition of EqHV by horses, making a derivation of HCV from EqHV unlikely. To unravel the EqHV evolutionary history within equid sister species, we analyzed 829 donkeys and 53 mules sampled in nine European, Asian, African, and American countries by molecular and serologic tools for EqHV infection. Antibodies were found in 278 animals (31.5%), and viral RNA was found in 3 animals (0.3%), all of which were simultaneously seropositive. A low RNA prevalence in spite of high seroprevalence suggests a predominance of acute infection, a possible difference from the mostly chronic hepacivirus infection pattern seen in horses and humans. Limitation of transmission due to short courses of infection may explain the existence of entirely seronegative groups of animals. Donkey and horse EqHV strains were paraphyletic and 97.5 to 98.2% identical in their translated polyprotein sequences, making virus/host cospeciation unlikely. Evolutionary reconstructions supported host switches of EqHV between horses and donkeys without the involvement of adaptive evolution. Global admixture of donkey and horse hepaciviruses was compatible with anthropogenic alterations of EqHV ecology. In summary, our findings do not support EqHV as the origin of the significantly more diversified HCV. Identification of a host system with predominantly acute hepacivirus infection may enable new insights into the chronic infection pattern associated with HCV.
dc.language.isoenen
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/*
dc.subject.meshAcute Diseaseen
dc.subject.meshAnimalsen
dc.subject.meshAntibodies, Viralen
dc.subject.meshBiological Evolutionen
dc.subject.meshEquidaeen
dc.subject.meshEuropeen
dc.subject.meshGenetic Variationen
dc.subject.meshGenome, Viralen
dc.subject.meshHepacivirusen
dc.subject.meshHepatitis Cen
dc.subject.meshHorsesen
dc.subject.meshHost Specificityen
dc.subject.meshHumansen
dc.subject.meshIsraelen
dc.subject.meshKenyaen
dc.subject.meshLatin Americaen
dc.subject.meshPhylogenyen
dc.subject.meshSequence Analysis, DNAen
dc.subject.meshSeroepidemiologic Studiesen
dc.titleDifferential Infection Patterns and Recent Evolutionary Origins of Equine Hepaciviruses in Donkeys.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentTwinCore, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH, Feodor-Lynen-Str.7, 30625 Hannover, Germany.en
dc.identifier.journalJournal of virologyen
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-13T05:43:15Z
html.description.abstractThe hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major human pathogen. Genetically related viruses in animals suggest a zoonotic origin of HCV. The closest relative of HCV is found in horses (termed equine hepacivirus [EqHV]). However, low EqHV genetic diversity implies relatively recent acquisition of EqHV by horses, making a derivation of HCV from EqHV unlikely. To unravel the EqHV evolutionary history within equid sister species, we analyzed 829 donkeys and 53 mules sampled in nine European, Asian, African, and American countries by molecular and serologic tools for EqHV infection. Antibodies were found in 278 animals (31.5%), and viral RNA was found in 3 animals (0.3%), all of which were simultaneously seropositive. A low RNA prevalence in spite of high seroprevalence suggests a predominance of acute infection, a possible difference from the mostly chronic hepacivirus infection pattern seen in horses and humans. Limitation of transmission due to short courses of infection may explain the existence of entirely seronegative groups of animals. Donkey and horse EqHV strains were paraphyletic and 97.5 to 98.2% identical in their translated polyprotein sequences, making virus/host cospeciation unlikely. Evolutionary reconstructions supported host switches of EqHV between horses and donkeys without the involvement of adaptive evolution. Global admixture of donkey and horse hepaciviruses was compatible with anthropogenic alterations of EqHV ecology. In summary, our findings do not support EqHV as the origin of the significantly more diversified HCV. Identification of a host system with predominantly acute hepacivirus infection may enable new insights into the chronic infection pattern associated with HCV.


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