Long Noncoding RNA SSR42 Controls Staphylococcus aureus Alpha-Toxin Transcription in Response to Environmental Stimuli.
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AbstractStaphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen causing a variety of diseases by versatile expression of a large set of virulence factors that most prominently features the cytotoxic and hemolytic pore-forming alpha-toxin. Expression of alpha-toxin is regulated by an intricate network of transcription factors. These include two-component systems sensing quorum and environmental signals as well as regulators reacting to the nutritional status of the pathogen. We previously identified the repressor of surface proteins (Rsp) as a virulence regulator. Acute cytotoxicity and hemolysis are strongly decreased in rsp mutants, which are characterized by decreased transcription of toxin genes as well as loss of transcription of a 1,232- nucleotide (nt)-long noncoding RNA (ncRNA), SSR42. Here, we show that SSR42 is the effector of Rsp in transcription regulation of the alpha-toxin gene, hla. SSR42 transcription is enhanced after exposure of S. aureus to subinhibitory concentrations of oxacillin which thus leads to an SSR42-dependent increase in hemolysis. Aside from Rsp, SSR42 transcription is under the control of additional global regulators, such as CodY, AgrA, CcpE, and B, but is positioned upstream of the two-component system SaeRS in the regulatory cascade leading to alpha-toxin production. Thus, alpha-toxin expression depends on two long ncRNAs, SSR42 and RNAIII, which control production of the cytolytic toxin on the transcriptional and translational levels, respectively, with SSR42 as an important regulator of SaeRS-dependent S. aureus toxin production in response to environmental and metabolic signals. IMPORTANCE Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of life-threatening infections. The bacterium expresses alpha-toxin, a hemolysin and cytotoxin responsible for many of the pathologies of S. aureus. Alpha-toxin production is enhanced by subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. Here, we show that this process is dependent on the long noncoding RNA, SSR42. Further, SSR42 itself is regulated by several global regulators, thereby integrating environmental and nutritional signals that modulate hemolysis of the pathogen.
AffiliationHIRI, Helmholtz-Institut für RNA-basierte Infektionsforschung, Josef-Shneider Strasse 2, 97080 Würzburg, Germany.
PubMed Central ID: PMC6199474
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