• Metabolic profiling of body fluids and multivariate data analysis.

      Trezzi, Jean-Pierre; Jäger, Christian; Galozzi, Sara; Barkovits, Katalin; Marcus, Katrin; Mollenhauer, Brit; Hiller, Karsten; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017)
      Metabolome analyses of body fluids are challenging due pre-analytical variations, such as pre-processing delay and temperature, and constant dynamical changes of biochemical processes within the samples. Therefore, proper sample handling starting from the time of collection up to the analysis is crucial to obtain high quality samples and reproducible results. A metabolomics analysis is divided into 4 main steps: 1) Sample collection, 2) Metabolite extraction, 3) Data acquisition and 4) Data analysis. Here, we describe a protocol for gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolic analysis for biological matrices, especially body fluids. This protocol can be applied on blood serum/plasma, saliva and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of humans and other vertebrates. It covers sample collection, sample pre-processing, metabolite extraction, GC-MS measurement and guidelines for the subsequent data analysis. Advantages of this protocol include: •Robust and reproducible metabolomics results, taking into account pre-analytical variations that may occur during the sampling process•Small sample volume required•Rapid and cost-effective processing of biological samples•Logistic regression based determination of biomarker signatures for in-depth data analysis.
    • A metaproteomics approach to elucidate host and pathogen protein expression during catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs).

      Lassek, Christian; Burghartz, Melanie; Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Otto, Andreas; Hentschker, Christian; Fuchs, Stephan; Bernhardt, Jörg; Jauregui, Ruy; Neubauer, Rüdiger; Becher, Dörte; Pieper, Dietmar H; Jahn, Martina; Jahn, Dieter; Riedel, Katharina; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2015-04)
      Long-term catheterization inevitably leads to a catheter-associated bacteriuria caused by multispecies bacterial biofilms growing on and in the catheters. The overall goal of the presented study was (1) to unravel bacterial community structure and function of such a uropathogenic biofilm and (2) to elucidate the interplay between bacterial virulence and the human immune system within the urine. To this end, a metaproteomics approach combined with in vitro proteomics analyses was employed to investigate both, the pro- and eukaryotic protein inventory. Our proteome analyses demonstrated that the biofilm of the investigated catheter is dominated by three bacterial species, that is, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, and Bacteroides sp., and identified iron limitation as one of the major challenges in the bladder environment. In vitro proteome analysis of P. aeruginosa and M. morganii isolated from the biofilm revealed that these opportunistic pathogens are able to overcome iron restriction via the production of siderophores and high expression of corresponding receptors. Notably, a comparison of in vivo and in vitro protein profiles of P. aeruginosa and M. morganii also indicated that the bacteria employ different strategies to adapt to the urinary tract. Although P. aeruginosa seems to express secreted and surface-exposed proteases to escape the human innate immune system and metabolizes amino acids, M. morganii is able to take up sugars and to degrade urea. Most interestingly, a comparison of urine protein profiles of three long-term catheterized patients and three healthy control persons demonstrated the elevated level of proteins associated with neutrophils, macrophages, and the complement system in the patient's urine, which might point to a specific activation of the innate immune system in response to biofilm-associated urinary tract infections. We thus hypothesize that the often asymptomatic nature of catheter-associated urinary tract infections might be based on a fine-tuned balance between the expression of bacterial virulence factors and the human immune system.
    • Molecular dynamics reveal binding mode of glutathionylspermidine by trypanothione synthetase.

      Koch, Oliver; Cappel, Daniel; Nocker, Monika; Jäger, Timo; Flohé, Leopold; Sotriffer, Christoph A; Selzer, Paul M; MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH, Schwabenheim, Germany. oliver.koch@tu-dortmund.de (2013)
      The trypanothione synthetase (TryS) catalyses the two-step biosynthesis of trypanothione from spermidine and glutathione and is an attractive new drug target for the development of trypanocidal and antileishmanial drugs, especially since the structural information of TryS from Leishmania major has become available. Unfortunately, the TryS structure was solved without any of the substrates and lacks loop regions that are mechanistically important. This contribution describes docking and molecular dynamics simulations that led to further insights into trypanothione biosynthesis and, in particular, explains the binding modes of substrates for the second catalytic step. The structural model essentially confirm previously proposed binding sites for glutathione, ATP and two Mg(2+) ions, which appear identical for both catalytic steps. The analysis of an unsolved loop region near the proposed spermidine binding site revealed a new pocket that was demonstrated to bind glutathionylspermidine in an inverted orientation. For the second step of trypanothione synthesis glutathionylspermidine is bound in a way that preferentially allows N(1)-glutathionylation of N(8)-glutathionylspermidine, classifying N(8)-glutathionylspermidine as the favoured substrate. By inhibitor docking, the binding site for N(8)-glutathionylspermidine was characterised as druggable.
    • Phagocytosis assay based on living Candida albicans for the detection of effects of chemicals on macrophage function

      Klippel, Nina; Bilitewski, Ursula; Helmholtz Zentrum für Infektionsforschung (Taylor & Francis, 2007-01-07)
    • Quantification of Stable Isotope Traces Close to Natural Enrichment in Human Plasma Metabolites Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

      Krämer, Lisa; Jäger, Christian; Trezzi, Jean-Pierre; Jacobs, Doris M; Hiller, Karsten; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-02-14)
      Currently, changes in metabolic fluxes following consumption of stable isotope-enriched foods are usually limited to the analysis of postprandial kinetics of glucose. Kinetic information on a larger diversity of metabolites is often lacking, mainly due to the marginal percentage of fully isotopically enriched plant material in the administered food product, and hence, an even weaker13C enrichment in downstream plasma metabolites. Therefore, we developed an analytical workflow to determine weak13C enrichments of diverse plasma metabolites with conventional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The limit of quantification was increased by optimizing (1) the metabolite extraction from plasma, (2) the GC-MS measurement, and (3) most importantly, the computational data processing. We applied our workflow to study the catabolic dynamics of13C-enriched wheat bread in three human subjects. For that purpose, we collected time-resolved human plasma samples at 16 timepoints after the consumption of13C-labeled bread and quantified13C enrichment of 12 metabolites (glucose, lactate, alanine, glycine, serine, citrate, glutamate, glutamine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, and threonine). Based on isotopomer specific analysis, we were able to distinguish catabolic profiles of starch and protein hydrolysis. More generally, our study highlights that conventional GC-MS equipment is sufficient to detect isotope traces below 1% if an appropriate data processing is integrated.